Delay period is the violation of menstrual function, manifested by absence of cyclic bleeding for more than 35 days. May be due to physiological causes (pregnancy, premenopause, etc.), and various organic or functional disorders. A delay period occurs at different periods of a woman’s life: during the formation of the menstrual function in women of reproductive age and pre-menopause. Delay of menstruation for more than five days – a reason to go to the doctor. Diagnosis delay Your period is aimed at finding the main causes of this symptom, which determines the further tactics of treatment.
Delay menstrual period is considered a failure in the menstrual cycle during which menstrual bleeding occurs at the expected date. The delay period, not exceeding 5-7 days, is not considered as pathology. Delay options are Your period such menstrual disorders as oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and opalneria, manifested menstrual bleeding rare.
Natural, physiological reasons of menstruation due to the delay in puberty during the formation of the menstrual cycle, when within 1-1,5 years menstruation can wear irregular. In women of reproductive age misses her period natural of a pregnancy and lactation. In premenopausal period, menstrual function gradually fades away, changing the rhythm, duration of menstruation and delayed menstruation are replaced by their complete termination.
All other versions the delay period, exceeding 5-7 days, not explained by natural phenomena, such cases require immediate consultation of a gynecologist. Menstrual cycle women is a subtle mechanism for carrying out the maintenance of sterility and reflects any variance in General health status. Therefore, for better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of delay of menstruation, it is necessary to clearly imagine, what is the norm and deviation in the characteristic of the menstrual cycle.
Delay menstrual cycle
Onset of menarche usually occurs between 11-15 years. At first, menstrual bleeding may come irregularly, the delay of menstruation during this period, normal, but after 12-18 months the menstrual cycle should finally form.
Beginning of menstruation before 11 years of age and after 17 years of absence is a pathology. Delay the onset of menstruation up to 18-20 years clear pathological processes: the General lag in physical development, disorders of pituitary function, ovarian agenesis, uterine hypoplasia, etc.
In normal menstruation occur and end in certain time intervals. 60% of women cycle is 28 days that is 4 weeks that corresponds to lunar month. Approximately 30% of women cycle lasts 21 days, and about 10% of women have a menstrual cycle length of 30-35 days. On average the menstrual bleeding lasts 3 to 7 days, and allowable blood loss per menstruation is 50-150 ml. Complete cessation of menstruation occurs after 45-50 years, and it marks the onset of menopause.
Irregularity and fluctuations in menstrual cycle length, Your period systematic delay of more than 5-10 days, alternating lean and heavy menstrual bleeding, talk about serious deviations in the health of the woman.
In order to control the onset or delay of menstruation, every woman should keep a menstrual calendar, noting the day of the beginning of the next menstruation. In this case, the delay period will be immediately visible.
Delay menstruation – why there is a delay menstrual cycle
Pregnancy is the most frequent cause of delayed menstruation in women of childbearing age. About a possible pregnancy, in addition to delayed menstruation, according to the changes of gustatory and olfactory sensations, appetite, cause nausea and vomiting in the morning, drowsiness, pain in the mammary glands. To reject the possibility of pregnancy even in those cases, if there was coitus interruptus, sexual intercourse during menstruation, in the “safe” days, or using a condom, in the presence of an intrauterine device, taking oral contraceptives, etc., as no method of contraception is not 100% contraceptive effect.
If there was a delay of menstruation, and in the previous month the woman has had sexual intercourse, it is possible to determine pregnancy is possible with the help of special tests.
The Principle of operation of all of the pregnancy tests (test strips, tablet or inkjet) are the same: they detect the presence in the urine of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG or HCG), which begins to develop in the body after 7 days after fertilization of the egg. The concentration of HCG in urine increases slowly and modern, even the most sensitive tests that can determine it only after the delay period and not earlier than 12-14 days after the incident of conception. Read the test result needed in the first 5-10 minutes. The emergence in this period of time, even a barely noticeable second strip shows a positive result and the presence of pregnancy. If the second strip was developed later, this result is not reliable. If your period is delayed to obtain reliable result of a pregnancy test should be repeated two times at intervals of 2-3 days.
It Should be remembered that living a sexual life, a woman can always get pregnant, so you need to closely monitor your menstrual period and to draw attention to the delay period.
However, the delay period may be caused not only by pregnancy, but also very near other, sometimes very serious and dangerous for health reasons.
Other reasons for the delay menstruation
In some cases, the delay period is due to a particular transition, adaptation for the body, and usually does not exceed 5-7 days. However, some of these are border States, and their worsening can occur in organic disorders, leading to delayed menstruation as a manifestation of a particular disease. Due to physiological causes can be considered:
- delayed menstruation caused by intense emotional or physical stress: stress, elevated sports, training loads or loads at work;
- a month of delay due to unusual changes in lifestyle: changing nature of work, sudden changes in climate;
- of the delay period due to insufficient nutrition and strict diet;
- delay in the monthly periods of hormonal changes: puberty or menopause;
- delay period as the condition after discontinuation of hormonal contraceptive means, caused by a temporary HyperTerminal of the ovaries after long-term receiving hormones from the outside. If a delay period is observed for 2-3 cycles, you must see a gynecologist.
- delay period after application of preparations of emergency contraception (“Escapee”, “Medicine”, etc.) containing a high dose of hormones;
- delay menstruation in the postpartum period, associated with the production of the pituitary hormone prolactin, responsible for milk secretion and suppressing cyclic ovarian function. If a woman is not breastfeeding, menstruation should recover in approximately 2 months after birth. In the implementation of breastfeeding menstruation is restored after weaning the child from the breast. However, if the delay period is more than one year after childbirth, you should consult a gynecologist.
- delayed menstruation caused catarrhal diseases (SARS, influenza), chronic diseases: gastritis, violation of function of a thyroid gland, diabetes, kidney diseases and many others. etc., as well as some medicines.
In all cases (except when the delay period caused by age-related hormonal alterations or lactation), the time delay should not exceed 5-7 days, otherwise it is necessary to visit a gynecologist to prevent the development of serious diseases.
To pathological causes of delayed menstruation are primarily diseases of the sexual sphere. In this group of causes distinguished:
- delayed menstruation caused by inflammation (adnexitis, oophoritis) and tumor (uterine cancer) diseases of the genital organs. Inflammatory processes in the genital organs, apart from the delay of menstruation may also occur abnormal discharge and pain in the abdomen. These conditions require emergency treatment, because they can lead to serious complications and infertility;
- delayed menstruation caused by polycystic ovaries and associated hormonal disorders. Also in polycystic ovaries, in addition to delayed menstruation, experiencing the weight gain, the appearance of seborrhea and acne, excessive hair growth;
- delayed menstruation caused by the cyst of a yellow body of the ovary, formed due to hormonal disorders. For resorption of a cyst of a yellow body and restore the normal menstrual cycle, the doctor appointed by hormonal therapy;
- delay of menstruation after miscarriage, which, though often but is not the norm. The reason for the delay menstruation after abortion can be not only dramatic changes in hormonal status, but the mechanical injury done during curettage of uterus;
- the period is delayed due to frozen or ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage during early pregnancy, requiring emergency medical intervention;
- delayed menstruation caused critical health and weight loss. For women suffering from anorexia, the delay period can turn into a full termination.
Thus, regardless of the reason, the delay period is the reason for urgent visit to the gynecologist.
Testing for delayed menstruation
To establish the reasons for the delay of menstruation may require examination, complementary pelvic examination:
- measurement and graphical display of changes in basal temperature, which allows to ascertain the presence or absence of the Commission of ovulation;
- determination of blood HCG levels, hormones ovaries, pituitary and other glands;
- diagnostic ultrasound of the pelvic organs to determine pregnancy (uterine, extrauterine), neoplastic lesions of the uterus, ovaries and other causes of the delay period;
- CT scan and brain MRI to exclude tumors of the pituitary gland and the ovaries.
The detection of diseases, related to the delay period, consultations shall take other medical specialists: endocrinologist, nutritionist, therapist, etc.
Summing up the above, it should be noted that the delay period, whatever the circumstances, she was not called, should not remain without attention to women. The delay period can cause a trivial change in the weather, or the joyful anticipation of motherhood and serious illness. In case of default of Your period timely consultation with a doctor will free from unnecessary worries and experiences, which can greatly exacerbate this condition. In families where the older girls should be proper sex education, explaining, including the fact that the delay period is a problem that needs to be addressed jointly with the mother and the doctor.