Dementia — progressive defect or progressive disintegration of the intellect. Occurs due to organic brain damage, inflammatory, traumatic, toxic and other origins. Distinguish dementia residual organic and progressive.
Dementia of residual-organic Genesis develops in meningoencephalitis, encephalitis various etiology, heavy craniocereberal trauma, drug and other poisoning of the Central nervous system (CNS).
Progressive dementia is treated as an independent disease (senile Dementia Alzheimer’s, Dementia Geller) or it is part of the progressive hereditary degenerative and demyelinating diseases of the CNS (neurolipids, leukodystrophy, leukoencephalitis, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s chorea, etc.), vascular brain lesions. In clinical practice the syndrome of Dementia are classified according to the name of a painful form, which led to these manifestations of dementia. There is also a lacunar Dementia, emphasizing the foci process in the brain and the resulting loss of memory, which results in a low level of intelligence, for example in vascular, traumatic brain injury persists.. though incomplete critical assessment of their condition patients.
Symptoms and signs of dementia
A characteristic feature of Dementia is its development after a period of normal functioning of the brain. Common signs of Dementia are more or less pronounced mosaic structure of mental disorders, uneven decline of cognitive functions with the possibility of relative safety of one or more of them, a certain stock of information, views and vocabulary regarding the period intact cognitive functions, a mismatch between the available stock of knowledge and low capacity, as well as between depth personality disorders (marked reduction of criticism, loss of higher emotions, severe weakness of faith) and intellectual disabilities.
An important feature of dementia should also be considered as significant violations of the assumptions of intelligence: memory, attention, mental activity, focus mental activity, which often prevail over disorders understand and comprehend.
In children of early age to the fore the loss or weakening of previously acquired skills (motor, grooming, self-service), as well as speech disorders — from the weakening of expressive speech with impoverished vocabulary to its full loss (motor and sensory aphasia).
Often decreases the level of motives of activity which often becomes unfocused, aimless dominated by motor excitation. Often impaired differentiation of emotions, lost feelings of attachment to family, the child becomes indifferent.
In children of school age decreased mental performance, impaired comprehension, demonstrate a distinct lack of feature generalization. When dementia is sharply expressed deficiency of concentration, impaired memory. Despite the relative clarity of the criteria for distinguishing between dementia and mental retardation such as congenital dementia diagnostic difficulties arise in the first years of life. In children of early age the processes of impairments of cognitive functions usually prevail over the value of the damage and the collapse of the prerequisites of intelligence, which, as a rule, not yet developed, rudimentary. Therefore, dementia arising in the first years of life due to early organic brain damage, schizophrenia, epilepsy and other diseases, has a similarity with mental retardation.
Treatment for dementia
The treatment is carried out differentially depending on the etiology and course of the main process. To reduce the level and speed of development of damineli appropriate administration of drugs that improve the metabolism of cerebral nerve cells, cerebral blood flow. When residual organic dementia have highlighted the importance of psycho-pedagogical classes.
Treatment of dementia includes psychosocial therapy and administration of medications.
Psychosocial therapy includes the support and care of the patient from his relatives and friends.
It is not recommended to put such person in a psychiatric hospital. It needs to be in familiar surroundings. The new location may only provoke the progression of dementia.
Drug therapy is indicated for depression, insomnia, hallucinations, delusions, aggression towards others.Drugs are shown to improve cerebral circulation.
Medication, for full treatment of senile dementia, currently does not exist.