Diarrhea in a young child can be caused by various reasons. Most often this is the fault of intestinal infection caused by bacteria or viruses. Sometimes diarrhea is the only symptom of General or localized infection (rhinopharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media).
Sometimes diarrhea can be due to improper feeding, for example, over-nutrition. Some medications also cause diarrhea, in particular those properties have preparations based on iron. Liquid defecation, the child may receive when taking the antibiotic erythromycin.
Diarrhea is frequent watery defecation greenish color with admixture of mucus. The child refuses food. But sometimes the General condition of the child is good, he continues to eat with appetite. High temperature happens when viral infection, in other cases, the increase in body temperature may be no ( or very small ).
If it is dehydration, the mouth and the tongue of the baby dry, and while crying on the face is not visible tears.
Treatment of diarrhea in children:
Diarrhea (diarrhea) is a frequent (more than 2 times per day) allocation of liquid stool, which is associated with accelerated passage of intestinal contents due to increased its motility or malabsorption of water in the colon and secretion by the intestinal wall of a significant number of inflammatory cancer.
In most cases, diarrhea is a sign of acute or chronic colitis (disease of the large intestine) or enteritis (intestinal disease).
Distinguish infectious diarrhea, alimentary, dyspeptic, toxic, drug-induced and neurogenic.
Infectious diarrhea observed in dysentery, salmonellosis, nutritional diseases, viral diseases (viral diarrhea), AMIBIOS, etc.
Currently quite common viral diarrhea. In children the leading cause of causing acute infectious diarrhea is rotavirus. Most often, rotavirus diarrhea in children under 2 years in the form of sporadic cases; possible epidemic of rotavirus infection, usually in winter. In adults, rotavirus is rarely the causative agent of gastroenteritis, and the process, they caused, runs erased.
Incubation (hidden) period of rotavirus lasts from one to several days. Start of acute viral gastroenteritis with vomiting, severe in children; then comes the diarrhea and General symptoms of infection: headache and muscle pain, fever, but these effects are usually moderately expressed. Abdominal pain not typical of viral gastroenteritis. Diarrhea is the nature of water lost by diarrhea fluid contains little protein, but a lot of salt. Viral diarrhea in adults lasts 1-3 days, the children – twice. Severe dehydration (dehydration) can threaten the patient’s life, and therefore therapy is reduced mainly to the replacement of the lost fluid is assigned to a drink containing glucose and salts (glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium). Fluid is injected at the rate of 1.5 liters per 1 liter of feces in the intestine, but the main control is visible filling of the vessels of the skin, mucous membranes.
Antibiotic therapy for diarrhea water does not affect the duration of the disease.
Nutritional diarrhea can result from prolonged nutritional, monotonous, vitamin-poor diet or allergies to certain foods (strawberries, eggs, crabs, etc.) or medicines (iodine, bromine, some sulfonamides, antibiotics, etc.).
Dyspeptic diarrhea observed in violation of digestion of food masses due to insufficient secretion of stomach, pancreas, liver or inadequate allocation in the small intestine of certain enzymes.
Toxic diarrhea can occur due to renal failure (uremia), poisoning by mercury or arsenic.
Diarrhea medication are the result of the suppression drugs (usually antibiotics) of the physiological intestinal flora and the development of dysbiosis.
Neurogenic diarrhea observed in violation of the nervous regulation of motor activity of the intestine (eg, diarrhea, occurring under the influence of excitement, fear).
Symptoms of diarrhea in children:
The frequency of bowel movements in diarrhea is different, the stool is watery or mushy. The nature of bowel movements depends on the disease. So, in dysentery the stool has a solid consistency at first, then becomes liquid, scanty, it appears mucus and blood; when amebiase – contains glassy mucus and blood, sometimes blood soaks mucus and feces take the form of raspberry jelly. With diarrhea can be pain in the abdomen, feeling of rumbling, transfusion, bloating.
Finally, you may experience rectal colic, or so-called te-nesma. They are manifested by frequent and painful urge to bottom with a sense of spasmodic contraction of the rectum and its sphincter, defecation occurs, but sometimes can stand out lumps of mucus.
Lightweight and non-durable diarrhea little effect on the General condition of patients, severe and chronic lead to malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, pronounced changes in the organs.
Diagnosis of diarrhea
To determine the cause of diarrhea are conducting a study of feces. The severity of diarrhea is judged by the speed passage (promotion) of the intestines of carbolenum (appearance of black color stool after taking ill of carbolenum in 2-5 hours instead of the normal 20 to 26 h) or barium sulfate x-ray examination.
Methods of treatment diarrhea
Aimed at removing the cause of the diarrhea. For example, if hypovitaminosis assigned appropriate vitamins, at ahilii stomach gastric juice is prescribed or its substitutes, with pancreatic insufficiency – Pancreatin or panzinorm, festal, etc.
Because is lost in diarrhea fluid, it is necessary to immediately begin reimbursing its losses. This is recommended for saline solutions, prepared by dissolving one packet salt mixture in 0.5 liters of clean drinking water, previously boiled and cooled.
Very well established Finnish drug “Rehydron”, which contains sodium chloride 3.5 g, sodium citrate 2.9 g, potassium chloride 2.5 g glucose 10 g Also apply “Glycosan” (sodium chloride 3.5 g, sodium bicarbonate 2,5 g, potassium chloride 1.5 g, glucose 20 g) and “Nitrogly-Kosan” (sodium chloride 1.5 g, potassium chloride 1.25 g, sodium citrate 2-water 1.45 g, glucose: 7.5 g). Every 12-24 h to do a fresh salt solution, the prepared solution to boiling is not subject.
When diarrhea is not associated with infection, shows a light diet (frequent small meals, limiting the carbohydrates, refractory animal fats) recommended thorough mastication.
As symptomatic of using calcium carbonate, bismuth preparations, so on…
Diet for diarrhea and upset stomach
- bread biscuits 200 g of wheat bread from flour; other baked goods are excluded;
- soups on weak non-fat meat, fish broth with the addition of mucous concoctions cereals (barley, semolina, rice), boiled and
- grated meat, steam quenelle, ricadela, egg flakes;
- meat and poultry – lean and nigilisty varieties of beef, veal, Turkey, in the form of boiled water cutlets, quenelle, ricadela;
- souffle from boiled meat;
- fish – low-fat varieties of fresh fish, cooked on the water or a couple, in the form of ricadela, cutlets or pieces;
- dairy products – cottage cheese freshly calcined or fresh grated cheese, eliminated whole milk and other dairy products;
- eggs – 1-2 soft-boiled or steam omelets;
- cereals – pureed porridge on the water (rice, oats, buckwheat);
- vegetables – only in the form of teas, added to soups;
- snacks are excluded;
- drinks – tea, especially green, black coffee and cocoa on the water; diluted fruit juices from berries and fruits, except grapes, plums, apricots.