Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic disorders, it is based on inadequate absorption of glucose by the body. Type 2 diabetes often occurs on the background of obesity.
Diabetes nutrition plays a big role. Mild form of diabetes mellitus type 2 diet is the main treatment method. For moderate and severe form of diabetes diet must be combined with the receiving antidiabetic agents or insulin. In diabetes mellitus type I, the occurrence of which is connected with the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas and insulin deficiency, the primary method of substitution treatment is insulin therapy. Adherence and diet in diabetes mellitus type I are complementary.
What is the “Bread unit”?
What is the norm uglevodosoderjati products per day should be consumed with diabetes? All uglevodsoderzhashchie products differ significantly in their physical properties, composition, caloric value. To measure any one of the usual home – with the help of spoon or Cup – all the important parameters of food impossible. It is equally difficult to determine and the necessary amount of daily allowance products, without having special knowledge and not seeing understandable guidelines. To ease the task, nutritionists was introduced notional concept, used for diabetes patients – bread unit.
Bread unit – a kind of “scoop” for the calculation of carbohydrates. Regardless of the type and quantity of the product, whether it is bread or an Apple, one bread unit contains 12-15 grams of digestible carbohydrates. It increases the level of blood sugar in the same magnitude – 2.8 mmol/l and requires the absorption of 2 units of insulin.
Bread unit was introduced for patients with diabetes mellitus receiving insulin. Because for them it is important to observe daily the daily requirement of carbohydrates, corresponding to injected insulin. Otherwise, they may have an increase or decrease in blood sugar – Hyper – or hypoglycemia. Thanks to the introduction of the concept of bread units patients with diabetes had the opportunity to properly plan the menus, correctly replacing some of uglevodsoderzhashchie other products.
For example, 1 unit of bread corresponds to 25-30 grams of white or brown bread, or 1/2 Cup buckwheat or oatmeal, or 1 medium-sized Apple, or 2 pieces of prunes, etc.
A day in the human body should do about 18-25 bread units. They should be spread over six meals: Breakfast, lunch, and dinner 3-5 bread units, in the afternoon – 1-2 bread units. A large part of the carbohydrate-containing foods should be the first half of the day.
Not eating for diabetes and how to determine the required rate of uglevodosoderjati products? To answer all these questions, the patient with diabetes need to be trained in special schools for people with diabetes.
The principles of clinical nutrition for diabetes
The diet should be physiologically competent:
-The amount of energy in the diet should be equal to the energy needs of the patient.
-The amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates should be balanced.
-Eating during the day – 5-6 times.
For diabetes patients are overweight, to enhance the feeling of saturation, it is necessary to include in the diet such vegetables as fresh and pickled cabbage, lettuce, spinach, green peas, cucumbers, tomatoes. To improve liver function, which greatly affected by diabetes, you need to enter in the diet products that contain lipotropic factors (cheese, soy, oatmeal and others), as well as to limit in the diet of meat, fish soup and fried foods.
There are several options diets for diabetics, but in almost home, you can use one (diet 9), which can easily be adapted to the treatment of any patient, eliminating or adding a particular food or foods.
In the diet may include:
-Bread and bakery products – mainly black bread (200-350 grams a day, as instructed by the doctor).
-Soups vegetable broth, weak meat and fish broth with a few vegetables (1-2 times per week).
-Meat and poultry (beef, veal, lean pork, Turkey, rabbit boiled or aspic).
-Fish dishes, mostly low-fat (perch, cod, pike, cod, carp and other boiled or aspic).
-Dishes and side dishes of vegetables (leafy greens, cabbage (cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, turnips, radishes, cucumbers, zucchini, potatoes, beets, carrots), cooked, with cheese and baked.
-Dishes and side dishes from cereals, legumes, pasta (in limited quantities, occasionally, reducing the amount of grain in the diet).
-Eggs (no more than 2 units per day in the form of scrambled or soft-boiled, and add to other dishes).
-Sour and sweet and sour varieties of fruits and berries (apples Antonov, lemons, oranges, red currant, cranberry and others) to 200 grams per day in raw form, in the form of fruit drinks on the xylitol or sorbitol. With a doctor’s permission, you can use sweet dishes and specially prepared diabetic products.
-Milk – with a doctor’s permission, kefir, curdled milk (1-2 cups per day), cheese (50-200 grams per day) in its natural form or in the form of curd, cheese and puddings.
-Mild sauce with vegetable broth vinegar, tomato puree, vegetables, and dairy.
-Milk tea, weak coffee, tomato juice, fruit and berry juices (only the liquid together with the soup up to 5 cups a day).
-Butter, vegetable oil (only 40 grams per day in free form and for cooking).
-Nutritional management of diabetes should be rich in vitamins, so it is useful to enter into the diet of beer and baking yeast, broth hips.
-candy, chocolate, confectionery, pastry, jam, honey, ice cream and other sweets;
-spicy, salty and smoked snacks and meals, mutton and pork fat;
-grapes, bananas, raisins;
-sugar is allowed only in small quantities with a doctor’s permission.