Duodenitis is an inflammatory disease of the duodenum, which is affected by its mucosa.
The duodenum is one of the most important organs of digestion. Her food is processed by the digestive juices of the pancreas, occurs luminal digestion stage, preparing food for absorption. Also duodenum produces certain hormones that regulate the activity of the digestive system, metabolism in the body. Therefore, despite the prevalence of this disease, duodenitis is a very serious problem.
Causes of duodenitis
Causes of duodenitis is quite diverse. Most often it develops in childhood, as a result of hormonal weakness of the apparatus of the duodenum, its incorrect location. One of the reasons development is the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori, which is the main cause of gastritis.
The risk of developing duodenitis exists among people of all age groups. There are acute and chronic duodenitis. Acute duodenitis is catarrhal, erosive-ulcer and abscess.
More common secondary chronic duodenitis – it develops on the background of already existing inflammatory diseases such as chronic gastritis; peptic ulcer of the duodenum; improper treatment of acute duodenitis.
Important role in the development of secondary duodenitis plays duodenalis – insufficient mobility of the duodenum as a result of obstruction or poor motility.
According to the degree of structural changes there are several variants of chronic duodenitis:
– surface (the inflammatory process involves only the upper layers of the mucosa);
– atrophy (thinning of the mucosa of the duodenum with the fading of its secretory function);
– interstitial (without damage glands);erosive-ulcerative (characterized by the appearance on the mucosa of small erosions and ulcers);
hyperplastic (excessive growth of tissue).
Symptoms of duodenitis
– a feeling of fullness in the upper abdomen (“always”),
– loss of appetite,
– sometimes nausea or vomiting bile,
– the constipation.
During periods of exacerbation – constant pain in the stomach, aggravated by starvation or 1.5-2 hours after eating. Appear nocturnal pain.
Some patients complain of headaches, fatigue, irritability, shortness of breath and heart palpitations that is associated with disruption of the hormonal function of the duodenum.
If there lambliosis and helminthiasis designate an appropriate chemotherapy (flags, furazolidone, Floxin).
The detection of Helicobacter pylori infection used antibiotics.
The high acidity – drugs that reduce the secretion of hydrochloric acid (omeprazole, ranitidine and antacids that neutralize the acidity of gastric juice (Almagell, Maalox, fosfalugel).
To protect mucous administered enveloping drugs (de-Nol, sulfacet). With anti-inflammatory purpose it is recommended to drink a decoction of chamomile and yarrow. To restore digestive appoint enzyme preparations.
If the cause of duodenitis was the motility of the duodenum (duodenitis), for example, obstruction, it is necessary to establish its cause. If it is connected with the violation of any of the functions of the digestive system, treatment duodenitis conservative. Shown frequent meals in small portions, drugs that bind bile and facilitating its secretion (choleretic). Effectively duodenal intubation with flushing of the duodenum.
In the presence of adhesions, mechanical barriers and other kinds of obstruction, intractable therapeutic treatment, operative treatment of duodenitis.
In secondary duodenitis, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease.
Acute duodenitis – symptoms
– pain in the stomach,
Acute duodenitis usually occurs on the background of acute inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
Treatment acute duodenitis
Acute catarrhal and erosive duodenitis usually don’t require treatment and proper regime disappear within several days, but in the case of repeated manifestations of the disease can pass to a chronic form.
The patient is prescribed bed rest and hunger within 1-2 days. Sometimes it is recommended to wash out the stomach with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After washing for bowel cleansing drink 25-30g of magnesium sulfate, diluted in a glass of water. From the third day, the patient is prescribed a special diet No. 1 (limited to food, irritating the intestinal wall, dishes are mashed, boiled in water or steamed, excluded very hot and cold dishes). Assigned binders and coating preparations, when the pain – antispasmodics (Nospanum, drotaverine, papaverine).
When phlegmonous duodenitis operative treatment, treatment with antibiotics. Possible complications gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation of the bowel wall, acute pancreatitis.
One of the major components of competent treatment duodenitis – a correct diet.
Within 10-12 days, you must adhere to the most sparing diet. Food you need to take 4-5 times a day in small portions. Excluded from the diet of all products, irritating the mucosa (spicy and fried foods, spices, pickles, fresh bread and bakery products, vegetables). Allowed pureed soups from oat, rice, manna croup, liquid porridge, scrambled eggs (no more than 3 per day), steam omelets, jelly sweet fruits and berries.
After 10-12 days allowed meat and fish cakes, steamed, pureed soups. In good health and with the permission of the doctor, the diet can be expanded, but sharp and irritating food should be deleted for a long time. Absolutely contraindicated alcohol.
Also physiotherapy, it is recommended that Spa treatment.
Because the nature of course duodenitis diverse and similar to many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, its diagnosis is based on instrumental methods of research:
– fibrogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsy;
– radiography of the stomach and duodenum;
– biochemical examination of blood;
– the study of feces;
– ultrasonography (USG).
In the case of phlegmonous duodenitis contraindicated fibrogastroduodenoscopy.
Prevention duodenitis must include full and regular meals, limiting acute and irritant foods, alcohol, early detection and treatment of digestive diseases, parasitic diseases.