Dysentery — a common infectious disease caused by dysentery bacteria and proceeds with a primary lesion of the mucous membrane of the colon. The disease is manifested malaise, cramping and abdominal pain, frequent liquid diarrhea, which in typical cases contain an admixture of mucus and blood and accompanied by false impulses.
Causative agents of dysentery have the form of sticks, relatively little resistant to the external environment. At a temperature of 100C, they die instantly, at 60C — for a half hour, the faecal mass in a few hours. Under the action of a 1% solution of phenol (carbolic acid) and direct sunlight causative agents of dysentery are killed in 30 minutes.
The source of infection are patients with acute and chronic dysentery, as well as bacteria. The most dangerous patients with the acute form of dysentery with mild disease who are not treated in medical institutions (apparently, the infection from these patients occurs more frequently than recorded because most of them are revealed only during active inspections). Transfer factors are food, drinking water and flies. Pathogens can be transmitted through dirty hands.
Symptoms and causes dysentery
Dysentery can be subdivided into acute and chronic. Acute dysentery lasts from several days to three months, the disease with a longer period is considered as chronic. Most often the disease occurs in acute form and is currently characterized by relatively mild current and very low mortality.
The mild form of acute dysentery is characterized by a typical, albeit pronounced, clinical picture. Incubation (latent) period, as with other forms of dysentery, the dysentery Symptoms often arise suddenly. Patients appear mild pain in the lower abdomen, mostly on the left side, can be a nagging pain in the rectal area. Stools frequent, from 3-5 up to 10 times a day, with mucus, sometimes blood. Body temperature normal or slightly increased.
More clearly the symptoms (signs) of dysentery expressed at medium-severe disease.
Usually acutely or after a brief period of malaise, weakness, chilling, unpleasant feelings in the abdomen typical symptoms of the disease.
In most cases the first to suffer cramps and pains in the lower abdomen, mostly on the left. Frequency of stool (painful, liquid, with mucus and blood) ranges from 10-15 up to 25 times per day and can grow during the first two days.
At the same time there is a headache, fever that lasts 2-5 days, reaching 38-39C. The duration of fever for 2-3 days.
Approximately 80% of patients with spasms and abdominal pain keep long. In some patients they may be permanent. Are usually pain in the lower abdomen, sometimes mostly on the left side. 30% of patients with pain spilled, 5-7% in the epigastric or the umbilical region. Often there is bloating gases.
Severe form of acute dysentery characterized by the presence of acute clinical picture. The disease begins rapidly, patients mainly complain of severe cramping and abdominal pain, there is often loose stools, weakness, high body temperature, often nausea and vomiting. Very frequent stools, with mucus, blood, sometimes pus. Dramatically speeded up pulse, there is shortness of breath, blood pressure decreased. The disease can last up to 6 weeks and with the unfavorable course becomes chronic.
Dysentery in children
Children often come into contact with pathogens that may be in the water, on toys, unwashed fruits, etc. Parents have to carefully monitor the hygiene, but it is not always possible. Dysentery in children who are breastfed, are extremely rare. This is because milk is transferred maternal immunity. Most often, the disease affects children aged from 2 to 5 years. Basically, they fall ill with dysentery during the summer. At this time, the kids spend a lot of time in the fresh air, swim in the ponds.
Symptoms of dysentery in children are no different from symptoms of an adult. The child becomes restless, loses his appetite. The temperature sharply rises to 38-39 °C. the Baby is experiencing abdominal pain. He has frequent loose stools, which looks like green slime. Signs of dysentery in children is reason for an immediate call to the doctor.
Prevention of dysentery
Prevention of dysentery is associated primarily with hygiene and sanitary measures. Sanitary supervision for the food industry, dairy farms, enterprises of public catering. Control health improvement kindergartens, public and residential establishments. Sanitary surveillance of drinking water, the nutrition of the population. The purpose of all these measures is to prevent transmission of all enteric infections. Of great importance in this regard is given to health education. Personal prevention is by thorough observance of rules of personal hygiene. In short, the dysentery is a disease of dirty hands!