Pediatric dentistry

Gingivitis in children

Gingivitis in children is one of the most common diseases. However, gum disease in children are not limited to gingivitis. Inflammation of the gums the child may also be observed in:
→ periodontitis,
→ periodontitis one of the teeth (on the gum appears abscess, fistula…)
→ gingivitis is often observed in diseases of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, for example, when gingivo herpetic-stomatitis.

Before starting treatment it is important to differentiate the disease of the gums the child, in order to avoid incorrect and, thus, futile treatment. Below we describe each of these diseases separately.

Gingivitis in children: symptoms and treatment

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the edges of the gums adjacent to the teeth, and the interdental papillae. Gingivitis is the initial phase of inflammation, and if left untreated the inflammation will increase, may begin to break down the bone around the tooth, and tooth mobility.

Gingivitis in children: symptoms

  • bleeding gums
  • pain when brushing
  • swelling of the regional gingiva and the interdental papillae,
  • redness of the gums red gums of the child are the symptom of acute phase of inflammation,
  • cyanosis of gums, blue gums the child will be in the case of transition of acute inflammation in chronic, with mild symptoms.

An objective examination of the oral cavity are detected by the accumulation of soft plaque and hard dental deposits, and, as a rule, a large number of teeth with caries.

Children’s gingivitis: causes

So, to answer the question: why are bleeding gums in a child… the Reason for the development of gingivitis is a microbial flora of dental plaque. Due to poor hygiene accumulation of plaque microflora which actively produces toxins and inflammatory mediators. These toxins and neurotransmitters, affecting the gums, it causes an intense inflammatory reaction, which is manifested by development of edema, bleeding, etc.

Ie main factor in the development of gingivitis is soft microbial dental plaque and dental plaque, i.e. poor hygiene!

The factors contributing to the development of gingivitis –
in addition to the main factor, there are additional factors that do not cause inflammation, but contribute to its appearance.

  • Local factors:
    → defects of dental fillings (overhanging edges of fillings),
    → malocclusion: crowding of the teeth,
    → sharp edges of carious cavities (Fig.4),
    → wearing orthodontic appliances (Fig.5),
    → mouth breathing,
    → anomalies attachment bridles lips and tongue.
    Listed local factors by themselves do not cause gingivitis, but they complicate oral hygiene and thus contribute to the accumulation of plaque.
  • Common factors:
    cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, infectious diseases (including SARS), hormonal and hereditary diseases. These factors lead to changes in reactivity (decreased immunity) – at the expense of decreasing the resistance of the gums the toxins and mediators of inflammation, which produces the microbial flora of dental plaque.

Gingivitis: treatment in children

Gingivitis: treatment in childrenAs we said above – gingivitis in children only occurs when accumulations on the teeth microbial plaque and dental deposits. In this regard, are selected and corresponding therapeutic measures. Treatment of gingivitis in children should include the following activities:

Removal of dental plaque and Tartar –
to remove dental plaque by holding a session of professional oral hygiene at the dentist. Dental plaque is removed using ultrasound, and then the teeth are polished with special brushes. The procedure is painless. Touch the tip of the nozzle to dental deposits causes destruction of the attachment of Tartar to the teeth.

Gingivitis in children – the treatment consists primarily in removing teeth with a soft microbial plaque and hard dental plaque by ultrasound. Attempt to use a variety of mouthwashes, gels with antibiotics and antiseptics, toothpastes with herbs, of course, will lead to a temporary stihanii inflammation. But once the drug use is over – inflammation will develop with a new force. Anti-inflammatory therapy should be used only after the removal of Tartar and plaque!

Anti-Inflammatory therapy
bleeding gums in children is one of the main symptoms of gingivitis, along with tenderness when brushing your teeth, swelling and redness of the regional gums. For more likely to relieve symptoms need to undergo a course of anti-inflammatory therapy. Inflamed gums of the child can be treated in the following dosage forms: antiseptic gargles and applications.Antiseptic rinse:

    The course of 10 days (maximum), 2 times a day morning and evening after oral health. It is advisable to rinse your mouth for at least 30-40 sec. Contraindications there are no age. The solution has a bitter taste.
    the solution to rinse for children from 3 years. Rinsing 3-4 times a day for 30-40 sec. Miramistin chlorhexidine is slightly inferior in potency, and besides it is much more expensive.
  • No alcohol infusions of herbs – chamomile, sage, eucalyptus,… (except oak bark)

Gingivitis Treatment: anti-inflammatory gels, ointments

Frequently asked questions: what is smear gums child with gingivitis, which is better – gel or ointment for the gums to children? Baby ointment for gums by the force of the action is markedly inferior gels for the gums. Gels are much better kept on the moist mucous membranes of the oral cavity. In addition, medicinal substances from gels more easily penetrate into the mucous membrane, than ointments. Therefore, the effectiveness of dosage forms based on gels – above.

    Gel for gums children’s. Active substance: choline salicylate and Catalonia chloride. Provides not only anti-inflammatory but also analgesic effect. Can be used not only for treatment of gingivitis, and teething for pain (rubbed into the area of the eruption).Contraindications there are no age. Is applied to the edge portion of the gums and gingival papillae especially from the front surface of the teeth. The course is not more than 10 days. Applied 2 times a day (morning, evening and before bedtime) immediately after the antiseptic rinse. After application, preferably 2-3 hours do not eat and do not rinse your mouth (you can drink).
    Gel for gums for children. Active substance: metronidazole 10 mg, chlorhexidine 0.5 mg
    Can be used from 6 years of age. Is applied to the marginal portion of the gingiva and interdental papillae in the area of the teeth gums 2 times per day. Rinse gel is not recommended. After applying the gel it is advisable not to eat and not rinse your mouth for 2-3 hours (can drink). The duration of treatment is not more than 10 days.

If You decide to treat the child, You will need to know that the removal of dental plaque before treatment is mandatory. If anti-inflammatory therapy will be applied without removing soft and hard plaque, it will cause the following:

→ symptoms (bleeding, swelling, etc.) certainly will decrease or disappear. But as soon as the treatment ends, the symptoms will occur again. This is due to the fact that the reason for the development of gingivitis (microbial plaque) is not removed, and treatment was carried out only in respect of symptoms.

→ the transition from gingivitis acute form with severe symptoms – chronic with a poor symptomatology that with high probability can result in the development of the child’s periodontitis.

→ dental health – you must treat all carious teeth, as in carious cavities of a lot of infection, which causes not only rot teeth but also gum disease. In children of younger age often occurs so-called shape of bottle tooth decay, which is associated not only with poor hygiene and improper feeding of the child.In the treatment of caries in children under 3 years of age, usually in dental clinics used method of silvering teeth. Despite the fact that this method does not require drilling the teeth, it has great disadvantages, besides yielding efficiency on the other, for example, a method of deep fluorination or remineralization therapy.

Prevention of gingivitis

Prevention of gingivitisExperts from the who (world Health Organization) identified the following main activities for the prevention of gingivitis:

  • Proper hygiene of the oral cavity –first, it includes the correct methods of cleaning the teeth and gums of the child depending on age. After all, many parents simply don’t know at what age you should start the oral hygiene of the child. And must begin even before the eruption of the first teeth.
  • Right choice of toothpaste – secondly, meaningful assistance to parents in the fight against tooth decay and gingivitis can have toothpastes. If hygiene, quality, and as a result the child has no cavities and gingivitis – can be used on practically any children’s toothpaste. However, with poor hygiene to help can come toothpastes with special components (e.g. Amino) that is able in a certain volume to compensate for nedostatki hygiene.
  • balanced diet children – it comes to diet (to avoid perekusyvay) and limiting intake of easily digestible carbohydrates (sweets, biscuits, sugary drinks etc). Digestible carbohydrates should be given to a child just after eating. Then within 5 minutes you need to brush your teeth.

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