Broken arm is injury to one or more bones of the limb. This concept combines the fractures of the humerus or of the forearm, fractures, localized in the elbow joint. You can also include here the corresponding injuries of the hand and fingers. Proper bone fusion and normalization of function is extremely important for humans, because the upper limb allows you to work, to relax, to grow, to live life to the full.
Trauma of the upper extremities is common, most people seeking care with fractures of the metacarpal hand bone, with fractures of the radial bone, as well as with the injured neck shoulder. The most common cause is a fall on the extremity. The fracture may be a consequence of the strong shock or the effect of increased physical load on the arm, bones of which were weakened by various diseases (bone tumor, osteoporosis, osteomyelitis, bone cyst, hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy) or have been characteristic age-related changes. Depending on the cause of the damage, the fractures are divided into traumatic and pathological. If the bone was fractured but not completely broken, it is necessary to speak not about change, but about the crack, if it breaks off a small portion, we can speak about the regional fracture.
Symptoms of broken arm
Knowing the main symptoms of fracture can be differentiated from painful just a strong injury soft tissues.
As signs, do not cause doubt that the person has a broken arm are the following:
- Abnormal position of the upper limb. The hand is unnaturally curved, and has appropriate appearance.
- In the place where there is no wrist, elbow and shoulder joint can be observed mobility.
- When probing occurs is characteristic of the fracture of crunching called crepitus. If you compare it with similar sounds, it resembles the cod, which produces a salt when grilling. Sometimes crepitate can only be heard with a phonendoscope, and sometimes without specialist equipment.
- May be visible bone fragments and have an open wound that bleeds heavily. In this case we are talking about open injury.
There are Also relative symptoms that allow to suspect the presence of fracture, but accurate diagnosis can be established only after full examination:
- a Feeling of pain that can be localized at the injury site and move on to neighboring areas. In particular, when a broken bone elbow, the pain can give in the shoulder and forearm. The nature of its intense even when the limb is in complete peace, if we try to give a hand load or move it , then the person will experience backache and the aches will increase.
- Swelling of the injury site and the presence of extravasation. Regardless of the localization, swelling at fracture always occurs. The size of the swelling can vary, it will be greater the closer the injury is to the hand or by the elbow joint.
- Symptom of cold limbs is a very dangerous sign, indicating that there has been a violation of blood circulation due to the rupture of the main artery. Although this happens infrequently. Another cause of cold hands may be a thrombosis that develops in the rupture of the intima of the artery and carries a deadly threat. Often this condition is observed in people of Mature age.
- Presence of a hematoma. If the bruise is noticeable ripple, it is testified by abundant hemorrhage, which is located in the subcutaneous tissue.
- Hand is deformed and is shorter intact limb. This symptom is typical for injuries with displacement. Especially it becomes appreciable, the strain at the damage to the bone of the forearm.
- Depending on the location of the injury, there will be limited mobility in the joint, which is closer to the fracture is localized.
- If the damaged nerves, there is paralysis. Will be immobilized and insensitive fingers.
Types of broken arm
Here are some approaches to determine a particular type of fracture:
- damage type: open, when damaged the skin and soft tissue, and bone are visible (they are further divided into primary and secondary open) and closed, which can be full (absolute bone fracture) and incomplete (hairline fracture or avulsion of tubercle).
- From the location of the line of fracture: diaphyseal (line is on the body of the bone), metaphyseal or juxta-articular (line is between the end and body of the bone), pifithrin or extra-articular (at the end of the bone).
- From which side of the directed line of fracture and its nature: longitudinal line (parallel to bone), stellate, T – shaped, bintamanya (line is a spiral), transverse (line is perpendicular), oblique (the line is at an angle to the bone), trimmed (with the presence of many fragments of small size), comminuted (more than three fragments).
- From the number of damaged bones: multiple and isolated.
- Of if there is an offset. Fractures with displacement are subdivided into primary (formed directly at the time of injury because of applied to the limb power) and secondary (formed as a result of the impact of attached to broken bones muscles). The displacement can be rotary, angle, width or length of the limb.
- From the possibility of movement of fragments: stable (fragments remain in one place) and unstable (occurs secondary displacement of fragments formed).
- From the presence of complications. Divided into complications (hemorrhage, fat embolism, infection, sepsis, osteomelitis) and uncomplicated.
The individual subtype of fracture is a combination injury with a dislocation of the bones. Most often they are complicated by severe damage of blood vessels and nerves. One of the most dangerous and serious type of injury is fracture of Galeazzi, when one region contains several different types of damages. Occurs a fracture of the radius, with displacement of the fragment down and eversion of the head.
Closed fracture of the hand
About the closed trauma say in the case where the bone had not broken through the soft tissue and skin, and stayed inside, held by the muscles. This fracture may be accompanied by offset or may not be accompanied. The cause is often a fall on an outstretched hand in front of him.
Symptoms, characteristic of closed trauma with acute pain, loss of functionality of the limb, deformity of the hands in the place of location of the injury. You may receive the swelling and discoloration of the skin, the time of the injury accompanied by a characteristic crunch.
First aid to a person with a closed hand injury is to immobilize the injured limb. This is done to the bone during the movement even more has not shifted, has not formed fragments. If fragments were formed at the time of injury, it’s important to capture them in the place where they are originally, to avoid secondary displacement. In order to immobilize the hands it is superimposed on the tire of any smooth and hard objects.
Then the design is firmly fixed. To provide a rest for the elbow joint using a splint, a person without medical training is not always possible, so it is better to use a suitable sized piece of cloth and hang the arm in a sling. Should not try to self align the arm, trying to set a bone, etc., thus can cause unnecessary harm to the person and to deliver additional pain. It is enough to give the victim painkillers and take him to the doctor, either on their own or to wait for the entrance of the ambulance.
One More important point in providing first aid during closed trauma with the arm, you should remove all jewelry: bracelets and rings. This is done in order to protect the soft tissue of the fingers from the immobilization because of the swelling.
After delivering the victim to the hospital, will be conducted necessary diagnosis and determining the type of fracture. If there is no displacement of the bone, the victim will impose a plaster, if it occurred, would require the prior reduction and then fixation of the limb by means of the same plaster. Shrapnel injury will require surgery and installation of metal structures of a certain type.
Open fracture of the hand
With an open type of injury is the damage to and rupture of the soft tissue, muscles and skin. Will see a certain bone or its fragment, which was subjected to damage.
Diagnosis this type of damage is not difficult, because the symptoms are obvious: bleeding, bones sticking out bleed, severe pain, the impossibility of carrying out movements of the limb, swelling.
Because the open injuries are accompanied by bleeding, it should stop. Do it yourself with the help of a harness should only be the case when it is arterial in nature. This is indicated by the following signs: blood has a bright red color, the bleeding pulsating and very plentiful. If these indicators are not found, only applying bandages from the bandages. After performing data manipulations can give a person some medicine for the pain, but only the one who does not doubt in his action. This can be Ketonal, nimesulide, analgin, etc. Then you must wait for the arrival of the ambulance.
Injury open type operational, with the installation of rods, screws, needles or plates. Only after that shows the cast. The rehabilitation period is increased, compared to a recovery of the limb after closed trauma.
The effects of the broken arm
Even with the timely provision of skilled care, no one is immune from unpleasant consequences that may arise as a result of the fracture:
- If the bones had fused together wrong, it is fraught with violation of the functional capacity of the extremities, as well as its deformation. The arm will deliver to the victim a lot of anxiety, will begin to ache as the bone and the adjacent joints. If there is improper fusion digitalnega fracture, will require surgery that involves opening the bone and repositioning it. Most often the prognosis of improper knitting of the bones of the hands and their favourable correction, and limb after surgery restores his former functions. This is especially true for patients who clearly have followed the doctor’s orders at the time of rehabilitation.
- Infection of the wound, with fracture of open type and the development of purulent-septic complications. When exposed soft tissue, there is always a potential risk of ingestion of pathogens. Therefore requires only the imposition of sterile dressings, treatment of water and antiseptics, it is important to examination under sterile conditions. It is necessary to clean the surface from contaminants.
- Damaged skin requires excision, devitalized muscle should be removed, as they begin to breed bacteria. Tendons and nerves should attempt to sew. All bones are completely detached from soft tissue to be removed, if only their fragments are too large or are not part of the joint. Disinfection is very important, as it affects the patient’s life and even a broken arm can lead to death.
- May form a contracture. It is caused by the fact that changes of the soft tissues, causing limited joint mobility. The reason is the complete lack of repositioning, the assumption of uncertainties in the mapping fragments.
- Fat embolism is another possible consequence of trauma. It can occur even after a successfully completed operation. Despite the fact that doctors always show the relative wariness of this kind of complications, nevertheless, fat embolism often be diagnosed late. The reason is disguised as traumatic shock, and often occurs on the background. If there is a suspicion of the possible occurrence of this complication, manipulation repositioning of bone fragments, as osteosynthesis it is necessary to refuse.
How long does a sore arm after a fracture?
Pain after injury is of a pulsating character, she gradually begins to decline. When you have a cast, the limb will be ill for several more days, but not so intensively.
Generally, the pain persists during the first two weeks, therefore, illustrates the overlay of cold locally, to keep the compress should be no more than 15 minutes. Can be repeated every hour. If a person is not able to undergo pain, it shows the assignment of NSAIDs.
In General, the timing of accretion depend on the localization of the injury and its severity. So, broken fingers recovered about a month later, the hand or forearm through the two radial bone in 1.5 months. As will be knitting will shrink and painful.
Pain can occur after you have removed the plaster. But when the normal healing and knitting of bones, all the unpleasant sensations should cease to bother the person a week later.
Swelling after a broken arm
Swelling – a phenomenon after receiving such injuries are fairly common. This trouble is temporary, but until the swelling hadn’t subsided, there should be regular monitoring by the doctor. To reduce the severity of edema it is recommended to apply ointments or gels that will help to ensure that blood circulation in the damaged area recovers.
Sometimes the swelling does not subside for a long period of time, then, for its removal requires special procedures. This can be phonophoresis, elektrofarez, electrical muscle stimulation or UV irradiation. Excellent help to cope with the stress of professional massage and therapeutic gymnastics. Do not ignore folk remedies, for example, the imposition of a compress of wormwood or smearing the swollen area blue clay.
If the swelling after two weeks does not subside, be sure to go to the doctor and to ask the professional about the possible causes of this phenomenon.
After breaking numb hand, what to do?
Numbness of the limb after the injury occurs frequently. With a similar problem to the trauma drawn a large number of people. First we need to define an area in which there is temporary or permanent numbness, whether it is accompanied by pain in the joints. If such feelings occur shortly after the trauma, do not worry – it is quite a normal process.
To survive you must begin in the case when loss of sensitivity is observed after removal of plaster over several days and no passes. Then you need to have more tests that show there is damage to nerve endings or blood vessels disease. Only a doctor will be able to identify the true causes of numbness of a limb after fracture and prescribe the proper treatment. But is pre set to that of fully the disease might not pass, and the feeling of numbness will bother a person again, for example, when changing atmospheric pressure.
In the absence of indications to try to get rid of the complications of the injury yourself with a salt bath or good massage. Can also help special exercises aimed at the development of joints, because limited mobility is often due to the fact that the limb was a long time in plaster. Impact and operations for the purpose of fastening the damaged nerve endings and tendons. In this case, physical therapy is a prerequisite for recovery. Sometimes it can help a course of acupuncture sessions.
Return of sensitivity is important breaks at work, proper nutrition, sufficient intake of vitamin b 12. Should spend more time in the fresh air, actively to move. Most often patients are unable to cope with this problem.
How to recover the hand after breaking a bone?
After You had received such a serious injury as a fracture unlikely of her to forget. The extremity requires competent rehabilitation aimed at recovery and development functions. Often it is a question about how to return the health hand patients go to the doctors.
When the long-awaited moment comes, and the limb remove the plaster, the patient was surprised to discover that the hand was “alien”. This condition due to the fact that it has long been immobilized, the muscles have weakened, the blood supply was insufficient. There may be swelling.
In order to remove the swelling, you can try to perform the following exercises:
- To start, you should attempt to squeeze the hand. This will allow to determine the degree of loss of power. Do not just try to engage the limb, to take her cups of tea or to do more complex things. For starters, you can practice on normal clay. You need to try to warm up with fingers, Peremena torn off a piece. If you are able to cope with the problem, you can afford to take a break. After the lesson should be repeated. To perform such a simple exercise should be for a month, several times a day.
- Following exercise will help to disperse the blood, to make it faster to circulate through the injured extremity. This requires being in a sitting position, stretching his arms in front of him. Short turning the palm of the right and left, can be felt, as the hand gradually starts to operate. But it is not necessary to push a broken limb or too active to rotate. Exercise should be done slowly and without jerks.
- Remove puffiness helps perfectly ordinary tennis ball that you just throw into the wall and try to catch it. Again do not get too actively to take up the job and too much to overload the limb. Otherwise you can only harm.
- Should be put in hand for three tennis ball and try to move your fingers. You should not stop the exercise, even if they will fall out of his hands. Its goal is to relieve swelling of which means movement, or it still won’t fully circulate through periatin gypsum vessels.
These simple exercises are classified as the recommended, but optional. The same ones that will advise the doctor to comply fully and without gaps. To develop my arm after the injury there are specialized physical therapy, and massage courses clearly aimed at rehabilitation. Great to develop hand helps specialized occupational therapy, which consists in knitting, embroidering, drawing, doing simple actions around the house or garden plot. Gradually, people will be able to return to normal life, which he had before the time of the injury.
Sports after a broken arm
Sports Activities is an effective way to return lost mobility.
To do this you should perform these exercises:
- Lifting shoulders up and down.
- Based on the table: extension brush, lifting of the forearm, rotation smeshannoi palm down, fingers clenching into the castle.
- Circular rotation. His hands to bend in elbows and turn them in different directions. Similarly performed and the rotation in the shoulder joint, only the limbs in this case should not be bent.
- Lift your hands to the sides and up over your head, then lift the hands in front of him and up again.
- Exercise “focus on fixing our hair.” Hand bent at the elbow to rotate, turning the head clockwise and back.
- Claps in front of him and behind him.
- Rotating brush, which initially can hold a healthy limb.
- Stretching the fingers. To do this, each of them needs to sit on a twine.
- Exercises in the water. You need to fill the pelvis, place your hand trying to bend and straighten the limb in it. You can compress and decompress the palm of the hand there.
- Another effective exercise with the help of a basin of water lift from the bottom of smaller items, such as coins or buttons.
It should be noted that depending on the stage of rehabilitation, the exercises must vary. You should choose them according to the principle – from simple to complex, gradually increasing the load:
- For starters, you can just move your fingers, bend your arm in the joint, talk it freely.
- After you should concentrate the main efforts on the wrists, to restore the function of fingers and brushes.
- At the final stage, the load needs to be spread evenly over the entire limb, with emphasis on the interphalangeal joint.
Massage after a broken arm
Massage is one of the key components of treatment aimed at restoration of mobility of the limb. One can begin even before the moment the plaster was removed. For this it make a small hole and point act on the injured limb. This can be done with a special Druse of quartz, with a blunt tip.
The work of the muscles to promote blood flow to the hand, its nutrition and oxygenation of tissues. Faster swelling will go down, bruising will be better to dissolve, the pain will decrease.
After the cast is removed, massage is more intense, but still cautiously, classical movements:
- First you need to hold the entire length of the limb with your fingers, transverse and longitudinal stroking.
- Then proceed to the grinding. It is already possible to make some weights.
- followed by kneading with your fingers, that promotes tissue regeneration.
- Movement with vibration – final stage of the massage. Clicking alternate with stroking.
To implement the manipulations you can use special massagers, applicators and cards. For the best sliding always used some oil. When the fracture is best suited fir. To enhance the effect, you can mix it with creams and ointments that resolves the swelling and have a warming effect.
How long to recover the hand after breaking a bone?
The timing of rehabilitation activities vary and depend on the nature of the injuries, and speed recovery. Some patients is enough a couple of months for a full return to normal life, and some may need long-term treatment of up to six months or even more.
In any case, after the cast is removed, to perform a compulsory programme aimed at restoring need at least a month:
- Neck shoulder fully restored after 3 months of treatment, plus a month of rehabilitation.
- The body of the humerus is restored after 4 months plus 1.5 months of rehabilitation.
- The Bones of the forearm are fused completely after 2 months, plus 4 weeks of recovery procedures.
- Of the radius is restored in 1.5 months, plus the same term rehabilitation.
- Hand Bones are fused after about 2 months plus 1.5 months of development.
- your Fingers are recovering faster than any other bones, they need a month to intergrowth and a month in rehab.
If there are contractures of the joints, the process of reconstruction and development will be long and will be not less than six months. When the nerves were hurt or a fracture complicated by an infection, the healing process and recovery can take several years.
Video: Treatment of Hand fracture