Hemorrhagic fever — an acute infectious disease of viral nature, characterized by toxemia, fever, and hemorrhagic syndrome — the leakage of blood from blood vessels (bleeding, hemorrhage). The pathogens belong to the group of arboviruses, which are mainly reservoir rodents and ticks. Infection occurs by the bite of ticks, when people come into contact with rodents or objects contaminated with their secretions, through the air (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome). Hemorrhagic fever — natural-focal diseases. Occur as individual cases or small outbreaks in rural areas, especially in areas not sufficiently developed.
3 types of hemorrhagic fever:
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hemorrhagic nephrosonephritis). The incubation period of 13-15 days. The disease usually begins acutely: headache, insomnia, pain in the muscles and in the eyes, sometimes blurred vision. The temperature rises to 39-40S and lasts for 7-9 days. Initially, the patient is agitated, then lethargic, apathetic, and sometimes delusional. Face, neck, upper sections of the chest and back brightly hyperemic, marked redness of the mucous membranes and the vasodilation of the sclera. By 3-4 day of illness condition worsens, intoxication increases, there is repeated vomiting. On the skin of the shoulders and in the armpits appears hemorrhagic rash in the form of single or multiple small hemorrhages. These phenomena are strengthening with every day, marked bleeding, most commonly nasal spray. The boundaries of the heart are not changed, tones are muffled, sometimes there is an arrhythmia and, rarely, suddenly there is a noise of friction of pericardium (hemorrhage). Blood pressure remains normal or decreased. Shortness of breath, lung congestion. Tongue dry, thickened, densely coated with gray-brown patina. Painful abdomen (internal bleeding), liver and spleen increase permanent. Especially typical renal syndrome: rezchayshuyu pain in the abdomen and lower back when swinging. Reducing the amount of urine or complete lack thereof. Urine becomes turbid due to the presence in it of blood and high protein content. In the future, gradually coming recovery: pain subside, stops vomiting, increases urine output — the volume of urine. For a long time there is weakness, instability of the cardiovascular system.
Marine hemorrhagic fever. Body temperature in 1 day reaches 39-40C and stays in average 7-9 days. The patient is agitated, the skin of the face and neck are red. The dramatic reddening of the conjunctiva of the eye. The pulse is slowed, blood pressure is lowered. Breathing is learning, often in the lungs dry rales are. Tongue dry, covered with dense gray-brown patina, urination free. In the absence of complications after lower the body temperature there is a gradual recovery.
Chronic hemorrhagic fever according to the clinical picture resembles a sea, but characterized by greater purity, a short incubation period (2-4 days). The features are undulations of the temperature curve and the frequent failure of the respiratory system.
Recognition of hemorrhagic fevers is based on characteristic clinical symptom, blood and urine tests to epidemiological data.
Treatment. Mode of bed, careful patient care, diet lacto-vegetarian.
Means of pathogenetic therapy are corticosteroids. To reduce the toxicity injected solutions sodium chloride or glucose (5 %) to 1 l In acute renal failure conduct peritoneal dialysis.
Prevention. Storage protect products from rodents. Use a deterrent. Patients subjected to isolation and hospitalization, conducted an epidemiological survey of infection nidus and monitoring of the population. In areas where there are patients, conduct current and final disinfection.