Hymenolepiasis – a disease that develops when the parasitic in the human intestine tape worm Hymenolepis nana, or dwarf tapeworm.
The worm length from a few millimeters to 5 cm consists of a spherical head (scolex), neck and ribbon-like body — strobili. At the head of the worm, there are 4 suckers and a proboscis with hooks whisk — the authorities by which it is firmly attached to the intestinal wall of the host. They buds from the rear end of the neck, shear back the previously formed segments. The development of the size of their last increase, and at the end of the strobile are already the largest segments filled with eggs of the worm that contains an embryo-producing planula larva. From time to time of the last segments break away from the strobile and destroyed by the intestinal enzymes, and their eggs are released into the lumen of the gut. Parasite eggs can be released from intact segments through their excretory openings. The larva (or lavolta) the dwarf tapeworm is called a cysticercoid. It has the appearance of a pear-shaped bottle hvastovichi appendage. In some cases, the cysticercoid is capable of vegetative propagation, i.e. to the otpochkovyvaniem from my body morphologically identical darvocet.
Causes of hymenolepiasis
In the gut of a sick person tapeworm parasite in huge numbers sometimes to hundreds of thousands of copies, adding to its pathological effects on the body. It is possible to allocate 2 main pathogenetic factor contributing to the development of symptom when gimenolepidoze:
1) the trauma of intestinal helminths (destruction of the villi of the small intestine cysticercoids, mucosa adult worms, which are fixed to it with its suckers and hooks), resulting in copious blood loss and malabsorption of nutrients;
2) toxic-allergic effect of waste products of helminths on the body of the patient.
Symptoms of hymenolepiasis
Hymenolepiasis sometimes asymptomatic, most patients are concerned about nausea, vomiting, heartburn, change in appetite and dull pain in the abdomen. Pain come in daily bouts or intermittently for several days. Characteristic of the disease is rapid and unsteady liquid stool with admixture of mucus.
as a result of prolonged diarrhea and loss of appetite observed weight loss. In children hymenolepiasis occurs in a more pronounced and severe. Diarrhea, exhaustion, nervous twitching, and even epileptiform seizures in children can be due to hymenolepiasis.
Severe and characteristic changes in the blood during hymenolepiasis is usually not marked. Sometimes there is a moderate decrease in hemoglobin and a slight increase of eosinophils.
Diagnosis of hymenolepiasis
Diagnosis is based on detection of eggs in feces. Eggs of the dwarf tapeworm are allocated cyclically, so in case of negative results should be repeated analyses, and to combine the study of native smear with the methods of flotation.
Treatment of hymenolepiasis
Deworming (treatment of hymenolepiasis) use a variety of anti-parasitic drugs. Drugs are prescribed in different daily dose for children and adults. As a rule, take the medicine for 4-5 days, after which is a break of 7 days. Control feces analysis conducted 15 days after the end of treatment and monthly thereafter. One month after primary treatment of hymenolepiasis is one cycle of anti-relapse treatment. In the intervals between cycles of deworming is carried out restorative treatment – taking multivitamin preparations.
On the Eve of and during the treatment of hymenolepiasis are recommended a low-residue diet with restriction of coarse food rich in fiber. During treatment and 3-4 days after the patient should daily take a shower and change clothes.