Hyperkeratosis is the pathology of the skin, which is characterized by an excessive rate of cell division stratum corneum and at the same time a violation of their shedding. The term itself is a symbiosis of the two Greek words hyper (“many”) and keratosis (“keratin”).
Causes of Hyperkeratosis
Causes of hyperkeratosis are divided into two groups, external or exogenous and internal or endogenous.
Internal reasons include:
- Systemic pathology of the body – diabetes, psoriasis and ichthyosis.
- Poor circulation in various parts of the body (most often in the lower limbs) – varicosity, obliterating atherosclerosis.
- Hypo – or avitaminosis.
External causes are particularly relevant for the occurrence of hyperkeratosis of the feet. The main trigger of this form of pathology is too long or excessive load on the lower limbs:
- Long walk.
- Tight and/or uncomfortable shoes.
- Large body mass.
- Foot deformities: clubfoot, flat feet, improperly fused bones of the metatarsus.
- Genetic factors.
Whatever the original cause, the disease is due to violations of the trophic in the upper layer of skin – the epidermis, as well as its innervation. The results are not long to wait – the cells of the stratum corneum continue to divide in the normal or accelerated, but the process of shedding are inhibited, which leads to thickening of the epidermis.
Classification of Disease
Hyperkeratosis is divided into several subtypes:
- Clinical signs:
This form of disease, occurs when the lack of vitamins A and C, as well as failure to observe rules of personal hygiene. Genetic predisposition also plays a significant role in the development of this disease.
Because of the violation of detachment of the keratinized epithelium of the ducts of the hair follicles are clogged and take the form of bumps or pimples. Most often affects those areas of skin that are prone to dryness are area of the elbows, knees, buttocks and outer thigh.
If left untreated, and remove the influence of adverse factors (low temperatures, uncomfortable clothing), hyperkeratosis captures a large area. Gradually around the follicles formed a rim of erythematous skin that can become inflamed.
The constant mechanical action causes a disruption in the integrity of the epithelial layer and leads to infection of the follicles and development of vast areas of pyoderma.
Lenticular and Disseminated Hyperkeratosis
This disease is often susceptible to older men, in women, the pathology is very rare. The cause of this type of keratosis is still not clear, but most experts agree with the theory about genetic mutations, which in epithelial cells produces excess keratin.
Lenticular hyperkeratosis of the skin is chronic, exacerbations occur after prolonged exposure. In the area of the follicles are formed of the Horny papules with a diameter of from 1 to 5 mm yellow-orange or reddish-brown. Most often affected skin in the region of the rear feet, shins, thighs, rarely parts of the trunk, hands or ear. Known cases of localization of this pathology in the oral mucosa.
If you remove the scales under it revealed a small wet recess with a drop of blood in the center. Papules do not merge, when pressed the pain is not there.
Disseminated hyperkeratosis looks like a short and thick hairs, which are localized mainly on skin of the limbs and trunk. Elements do not tend to merge, but sometimes arranged in groups in the form of brushes.
Hyperkeratosis on Foot
This type of disease is often referred to cosmetic defects and does not give due attention to treatment of diseases. But if you let the disease go, in a short time the patient will feel all the charm of complications, which include bleeding cracks, pain when walking, the feeling of stiffness.
Causes of hyperkeratosis stop quite ordinary – uncomfortable shoes, lack of foot care, overweight, lack of vitamins, various vascular pathology. The beginning of the disease occurs at a young age is 20-30 years, with age, the symptoms become more pronounced and worse amenable to therapy.
If the Horny layer is thickened evenly across the surface of the heel, is suspected fungal nature of the disease or disorders in the endocrine system. Hyperkeratosis in the region of the outer edge of the foot points to the flaws of the gait of the person.
This type of hyperkeratosis identified by onychomycosis, lesions of the nail plates of different filamentous fungi. The main clinical symptom of the disease – a thickening of the nail plate, changes its structure (compaction or, conversely, porosity) and color.
Distinguish 2 severity subungual hyperkeratosis:
- Reasonable – the thickness of the nail 1-2 mm.
- Severe the nail is thicker than 2 mm.
Hyperkeratosis of the scalp and face
Main complaints of patients with hyperkeratosis of the skin of the scalp:
- Dry flaky and rough skin.
- Dull and brittle hair.
- Lumps of Burgundy.
- Hair Loss.
If time does not diagnose the disease, the patient begins partial or complete baldness. Often, this pathology is combined with hyperkeratosis on other areas of the body.
On the face of the disease manifests itself clearly enough – the skin becomes dry and rough, it formed the bumps, scales and even education in the form of spikes. In severe the patient’s face covers the original cork.
Treatment of Hyperkeratosis
Treatment of this pathology engaged only in the dermatologist in some cases, hyperkeratosis of the stop may be replaced by a doctor-cosmetologist.
If the patient is affected skin of the face, conducted a comprehensive therapy. Patient prescribed drugs tretionin, vitamin a, ascorbic acid and sometimes topical corticosteroids. To reduce the symptoms of the disease, the patient is recommended to undergo a mild peeling and to use softening creams.
People suffering from keratosis of the scalp, recommend the use of a substance having a softening action – vaseline, glycerin, fish oil, castor oil, lotions with lactic acid. In severe pathology are assigned gormons-ointment. Mechanical or chemical exposure can trigger the activation process.
There are no drugs that can completely cure the follicular hyperkeratosis. Therefore, therapy of this disease are aimed at correcting systemic disorders in the body and to eliminate the local symptoms. The structure of ointments and creams for the treatment of hyperkeratosis include certain acid – lactic and fruity. With their help carry out the peeling with fruit acids and lactic acid. Scrubs or pumice cannot be used – you can start the generalization process.
Lenticular and disseminated hyperkeratosis treated with corticosteroids and aromatic retinoids, topically applied agents having the effect of a chemical peel. The mechanical impact on affected skin is prohibited.
Treatment hyperkeratosis stop is carried out comprehensively. Doctor-Podiatry eliminates symptoms of the disease: making an application with sintomitsinovoy ointment, apply a solution of retinol to soften the skin, is a medical pedicure. The orthopedic surgeon helps the patient to correct flat feet or club foot, gives advice on the correct selection of shoes.
Treatment of hyperkeratosis by medical pedicure
But no matter how effective means for addressing the symptoms of the disease, you need to remember that until you eliminated the true cause of the hyperkeratosis, the disease is not stopped.