Hyperkeratosis (keratodermia, keratodermas, keratome) is one of the forms of keratosis, a skin condition in which the skin is covered with dry coarse scales due to the overproduction of keratin, resulting in thickening of the granular layer of the dermis of the skin. Such seal skin can appear anywhere, especially in areas of friction or irritation, but there are areas on the body are more prone to the formation of Horny growths: heels, knees, elbows and forearms.
Sometimes a symptom of keratodermas is visible on the face. Due to violation of the protective properties of the skin penetrate into the pores of harmful bacteria. The dermis loses moisture and becomes inflamed, appear dilated porous pores. Secreted sebum is not excreted from the pores and comedones arise (black dots).
Most often, hyperkeratosis is combined with the excessive dryness of the skin, but the problem of excessive keratinization of the dermis occurs not only because of its drying out, but also due to the fact that dead cells are not shed. Lesions usually do not cause any symptoms, but can sometimes be the reason:
- Chronic inflammation of the skin.
- Changes in skin color.
- Hair loss.
Causes of hyperkeratosis
In General, keratosis is a group of diverse non-inflammatory skin disease characterized by the disturbance of the process of novoobrazovaniya (excessive development of the stratum corneum or delay normal exfoliation). Keratoses are quite common, but their classification was developed fuzzy, due to the uncertainty of the causes and pathogenesis of many of them.
- Hyperkeratosis of the skin can occur in people who do not perform regular treatments, the skin, such as peeling and cosmetic moisturizing. As a result of dehydration dry and dead skin cells accumulate and create unsightly Horny layer on the surface.
- Our skin is constantly exposed to adverse external factors, such as water and detergents, UF radiation (solar hyperkeratosis). As a result of impaired lipid layer of the dermis and the moisture evaporates from the skin.
- In connection with the violation of metabolic processes in the skin cells begin to die very quickly and the Horny layer of the skin becomes much thicker.
- Often, hyperkeratosis may develop independently, without any apparent cause. In these cases, the symptom is noticeable immediately after birth and is hereditary disorder.
- Constant irritation, wearing the wrong shoes and apparel is also cause thickening of the skin.
- HPV or the human papillomavirus contributes to the appearance of hyperkeratosis. The cause of hyperkeratosis may become another infection, an example is frambesia hyperkeratosis, caused by the spirochete.
- It is also believed that the symptoms of thickening and dryness of the skin can be caused by vitamin a deficiency.
- Lack of hormone estrogen in women during menopause contributes to the appearance of hyperkeratosis.
- Aging, hyperkeratosis is associated with age-related skin changes.
Disease, which may be a symptom of hyperkeratosis
- Ichthyosis is a hereditary chronic dermatosis.
- Shingles rashes of various etiologies.
- Psoriasis chronic dermatos skin non-infectious nature.
- Metabolic disorders, including diabetes, thyroid disease, obesity.
- Atopiceski dermatitis.
What doctor and when to contact immediately
Increased cornification of the skin is a common cosmetic defect. If hyperkeratosis is manifested not much and not complicate the patient’s life, then a doctor’s consultation is not required. When significant symptoms should see a doctor or dermatologist may require consultation with an endocrinologist. If hyperkeratosis is not associated with any hereditary or chronic illness, it is enough to visit the beautician. Experts will recommend treatment and proper skin care.
Treatment of hyperkeratosis
Treatment of hyperkeratosis depends on its cause, location, type, and severity. If the doctor did not reveal the disease to cope with hyperkeratosis can help the beautician.
- For treatment of severe hyperkeratosis of the skin are often used oral drugs. Regular intake of medicines containing retinoids, helps effectively combat dry skin problems. The most common is actitretin. It includes a substance analog of retinoic acid.
- Hyperkeratosis of the skin can also be treated with calcipotriol. He is an active form of vitamin D. This medication is applied directly on the affected skin. After about two weeks you can see the first effects of the treatment.
- In less extensive and less severe cases we recommend the use of creams and ointments that are rich in fats. This treatment will improve the lipid composition of the skin and retain moisture.
- You should enrich your diet with fruits and vegetables such as carrots, spinach, cauliflower, plums, peaches or strawberries, lemon, as they contain large quantities of vitamins A and C.
- Improve the condition of skin can be achieved with rough exfoliation using massage gloves for shower. It’s good to combine this procedure with a sauna or bath.
Good dermocosmetics for dry skin and struggle with keratosis must contain at least one of these substances:
- Shea butter – it includes oleic, stearic, palmitic and linolenic acid. They are almost identical with fatty acids contained in the Horny layer of the dermis.
- Salicylic acid 2% – facilitates the detachment of dead flakes of skin.
- Urea 20% – hydrates and increases the flexibility of the stratum corneum.
- Allantoin – accelerates and heals damaged skin.
- Panthenol – effectively relieves irritation.
- Lactic or glycolic acid softens the skin.
- Tretinoin – helps to smooth the skin’s surface.
- Vitamins A, C.
Other treatments depending on the type of hyperkeratosis:
- Calluses or corns – will the use of silicone gaskets, protective plasters and special insoles.
- Warts are removed by freezing with liquid nitrogen (cryosurgery), burning with a laser, and cut out surgically.
- Chronic eczema treated with corticosteroid ointments (prednisolonbuy, hydrocortisone) or creams that are rubbed into the affected the skin area.
- Lichen planus – treatment used Immunostimulants (neovir, Reaferon) and hormonal therapy with corticosteroids.
- Keratoses can be treated with laser therapy, peeling or dermabrasion.
- Seborrheic keratosis is removed with a scalpel or cryosurgery.
- Keratodermas face (pores, comedones) – to ensure you can use fruit Pileggi, microdermabrasion, vitamin therapy(mesotherapy) vitamins a And C.
Self-treatment of hyperkeratosis
- Calendula – can come in creams, oils, ointments. Calendula is used to treat plantar hyperkeratoses since 1980. It has a strong keratolytic effect and anti-inflammatory properties.
- Birch tar has anti-inflammatory and regenerating effect on the skin. It includes more than 10 000 of nutrients.
- Juice of dandelion is effectively used for the treatment of calluses and corns. Juice should be lubricated hardened skin.
- Lard – moisturizes and protects the skin. They lubricate the dry and rough areas of the skin overnight. For convenience, you can wrap with plastic wrap.
- Badger fat is to lubricate the cracked and bleeding skin.
- Decoction of chamomile – used for the treatment of hyperkeratosis of the face. The broth is frozen and rubbed the ice cube problem areas on the skin.
- Soda scrub is suitable for sensitive places with small thickenings of the skin such as the face, shoulders.