Hypertensive crisis is one of the most dangerous and common complications of hypertension. This condition is a serious threat to the health and life of the patient and requires emergency care, and first aid should provide himself with a patient. Hypertensive crises occur in approximately 1 % of patients suffering from arterial hypertension and duration of hypertension can vary from several hours to several days.
A hypertensive crisis is called a sudden increase in blood pressure (systolic BP above 200 mm Hg, diastolic BP above 110 mm Hg). However, it should be understood that for each patient there is something called the pressure at which it will have the symptoms of hypertensive crisis. Some patients feel a sharp deterioration in increasing numbers systolic pressure above 160 mm Hg, while others feel it increases and at 200 mm Hg.
Hypertension is a disease in which this condition develops most often. Especially among women in postmenopausal period. Also hypertensive crisis can develop in diseases accompanied by symptomatic arterial hypertension (pheochromocytoma, kidney disease, diabetes, etc.). Predisposing factors to increase blood pressure usually are stress, sudden change of weather and climatic conditions, excessive use of alcohol, salt, discontinuation of antihypertensive drugs.
Symptoms of hypertensive crisis:
- sudden emergence of feelings of fear, worry, anxiety;
- appearance of fever, tremor;
- hyperemia (redness), swelling of the face;
- cold clammy sweat;
- blurred vision;
Hypertensive crisis – first aid
As a rule, all physicians-cardiologists are trying to educate their patients who suffer from hypertension, the primary actions required when beginning a hypertensive crisis.
However, many patients independently know how to cope with this dangerous condition and did not even seek professional medical help immediately. Sometimes, however, the development of hypertensive crisis can be a primary manifestation of the development of hypertension, which people may not know previously.
So what should be done to implement the first urgent care when a hypertensive crisis develops:
- When the crisis of the patient preferably will be laid, thus giving the patient semi sitting position. The patient should be warm and provide full rest.
- Be sure to provide the patient to fresh open air. For this room, where the sick need to open a window or pane.
- it is Extremely important for the patient in a timely manner to catch my breath. With this purpose, the patient is recommended to make some as deep slow breaths and subsequent breaths.
- Unfortunately, in this situation, excessive anxiety can only contribute to a further increase of blood pressure. To soothe you can give the patient Korvalol or Valerian tincture and motherwort tincture.
- Well, first and foremost, of course, need to try to reassure such a patient. Because panic is a bad ally, not only in hypertensive crisis, but also under any other emergency conditions.
- Directly on the head of such a patient should put a bladder containing ice bubble, you can replace the cold compress. In addition to the calves of the legs or on the back of the head you can put mustard. It is quite suitable in this case use warm heating pads applied to the feet or legs (about fifteen or twenty minutes).
- If the crisis provoked by pass taking another medication prescribed by your doctor, you will need to take an extraordinary dose of this medication lowering blood pressure. Also if you experience severe pain in the chest accompanied by shortness of breath can I take half a tablet of nitroglycerin and, of course, to call the ambulance.
- Also while waiting for the arrival of the medical team (if necessary) to take one tablet at intervals of not less than five minutes. It should be remembered that more than three nitroglycerin tablets at one time should not be taken.
- If you suspect the development of hypertension, measure blood pressure not less frequently than every twenty minutes. And if blood pressure, in spite of the event, not reduced, and General condition of the patient is only getting worse, an urgent need to go to the hospital.
In some cases, this crisis can be docked only for intravenous or intramuscular introduction of certain drugs by the doctor. Sometimes the complications of the crisis, sometimes, only need urgent hospitalization.
Causes and types of hypertension
Hypertensive crises are also divided into uncomplicated and complicated.
Uncomplicated hypertensive crisis most often occurs in hypertension I and II stage. The symptomatology develops rapidly, but the signs of high blood pressure persist only a few hours. Antihypertensive therapy quickly helps improve the patient’s condition and to normalize blood pressure numbers.
Complicated hypertensive crisis is typical for patients with arterial hypertension II or stage III. The most common complication of this condition is hypertensive encephalopathy, in which there is initially a transient headache, dizziness, blurred vision and other signs of hypertensive crisis. Over time, the symptoms of encephalopathy are increasing, which can lead to stroke, intellectual disabilities and other disorders associated with cerebrovascular disease. In addition, patients may develop myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, acute renal failure, etc. Symptoms of complicated hypertensive crisis may persist for some time after blood pressure has been normalized.
Prevention of hypertensive crisis
Hypertensive crisis is essentially a complication of hypertension, so preventive measures include all of the recommendations for people with hypertension:
- lifestyle modification (weight loss, diet, cessation of Smoking and alcohol consumption, exercise);
- prescription doctor for the treatment of hypertension;
- preventive checkups a cardiologist or physician at least once in six months;
- regular monitoring of blood pressure by the patient;
- treatment of diseases, accompanied by symptomatic arterial hypertension.
It is important to note that in order to avoid the most dangerous complications of hypertensive crisis, the patient self-important way to control your blood pressure. And even, record your blood pressure in a special diary.
It is equally important to try not to miss any doses of those antihypertensive drugs that were previously prescribed by the doctor. Because literally one pass reception important medicines can cause a dangerous jump in blood pressure.