Hypotension is a condition in which blood pressure is reduced to a tangible person limit. The magnitude of this reduction of the individual, but usually it’s below 100/60 mm Hg for men and 95/60 mm Hg for women.
Arterial hypotension may be acute and chronic.
Hypotonia (collapse – a sharp drop in vascular tone, shock paralytic vasodilatation) is usually accompanied by a reduction of oxygen to the brain (hypoxia) and a decrease in the function of vital organs that requires immediate medical care. The severity of the condition is determined not so much by the amount of blood pressure, how much speed and degree of reduction.
Acute arterial hypotension may occur with acute circulatory failure, severe intoxication (alcohol, drugs, medicines, especially fast – and short-range, for example, clonidine, nifedipine, captopril, nitroglycerin and other), acute infection and sepsis, blood loss, dehydration. Thus, acute hypotension often a complication of diseases, has an obvious cause, which should primarily be considered when emergency treatment.
People who are prone to chronic arterial hypotension usually is not affected in the long run such a high risk of cardiovascular complications, as “hypertensive” and unduly paid considerably less attention. At the same time, in the elderly hypotension increases the risk of ischemic stroke in young impairs quality of life and reduces work capacity.
Causes of Hypotension
Chronic hypotension can be an individual variant of the norm: to appear as a consequence of high fitness (the athletes), to serve as a mechanism of adaptation (the inhabitants of the mountains, tropics, Arctic). In these cases, it is not a disease and is not felt by the person.
At the same time, chronic hypotension can be an independent disease or a manifestation of another disease. It leads to the violation of the vascular tone (e.g., dystonia, some endocrine diseases) or reduced cardiac output (cardiac insufficiency, aortic valve stenosis, arrhythmias).
Signs of Hypotension
Peculiar and sometimes the main manifestation of arterial hypotension of any nature may be orthostatic hypotension – a further reduction in pressure directly after the transition from horizontal to vertical. It usually lasts 1-3 minutes. Orthostatic hypotension is more likely to occur in the morning, accompanied by a deterioration of blood supply to the brain – dizziness, blackouts, noise in the ears. Sometimes it leads to fainting (with the risk of ischemic stroke) or falling (with the possibility of injuries and fractures, especially in elderly people. Orthostatic hypotension contributes to prolonged bed rest, previous serious illness, operations, many drugs.
Chronic arterial hypotension, in addition to the above, may be manifested by weakness, fatigue, nervousness, tiredness in the morning, low efficiency, headaches, tendency to faint, and sometimes pain in the heart area. Also characterized by poor tolerance of cold, heat, heat, physical exertion, chilliness.
Diagnosis of Hypotension
Diagnosis will include a search of the disease, which led to decrease pressure. To this end, the cardiologist in addition to the detailed survey and examination of the patient may appoint ECG (including ECG stress and daily monitoring of ECG), Doppler echocardiography and other studies.
Treatment of Hypotension
Treatment of chronic arterial hypotension is usually complex. It includes the normalization lifestyle (rational alternation of work and rest, adequate sleep, proper diet, avoiding harmful habits. An important component of treatment are dosed physical load (physiotherapy), walks in the fresh air, a contrast shower.
Medication use natural tonic preparations based on ginseng, Siberian ginseng, aralia, lemon grass and other plants.
Of course, if hypotension developed as a complication of another disease, treatment of the underlying disease.