Hypotonia in children – a disease or symptom known in the literature as hypotension, is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure.
Hypotonic conditions can be very different.
Types of hypotonia in children:
Physiological include hypotension as a normal variant in a child as a result of increased fitness (if the child does sports, gymnastics, etc.), as a way of adapting if the child lives in the highlands. Pathological hypotension may be primary or secondary. Primary develops due to VSD. The flow can be unstable reversible. In some cases the disease takes a permanent form, then it is called hypotonic disease.
Hypotension in children is characterized by not only persistent reduction in pressure and headaches, dizziness, orthostatic down. Secondary arterial hypotension in children appears due to endocrine, cardio-vascular system associated with the syndrome of heart failure, etc. Hypotension in children is less common than hypertension.
Causes of hypotonia in children:
Hypotension in children occurs as a hereditary pathology, but also as a result of exogenous and endogenous factors. Most often low pressure is “passed” from the mother. At astenikov hypotonia – typical phenomenon. Prone to under-pressure those children of mothers whose pregnancy was adversely, and also if the mother had low blood pressure until she bore the child.
Hypotension is manifested in children when they reach adolescence. Causes of low blood pressure in children are psycho-emotional stress associated with death or serious illnesses of loved ones, living in single-parent families and other factors. Among the reasons also identify the following:
- social factors
- chronic infection
- physical inactivity
- mental fatigue
The leading event of hypotonic States are neurocirculatory violations. Influences the development of hypotension insufficient function of the endocrine glands: thyroid, adrenal, pituitary.
Pathogenesis of hypotension in children:
Pathogenesis of hypotension in children is still poorly understood. Not identified typical causes of the disease, but there are many theories: humoral, neurogenic, autonomic, constitutional-endocrine. Today is a clearly proven violation of the mechanisms of autoregulation of Central hemodynamics is a mismatch between cardiac output and total peripheral vascular resistance, usually by reducing the last. During the course hypotension (hypotonia) in children total peripheral resistance continues to decrease.
In children and adolescents the most significant mechanism for reducing the peripheral resistance is vegetative. It is extremely important in the development of the pathological process and the participation of biologically active compounds with hypotensive properties of the prostaglandin, nitric oxide, natriuretic peptides, kinins, etc.
Symptoms of Hypotonia in children:
The child with hypotonia can receive complaints on:
- propensity for fainting
- pain in the heart
Objective examination reveals pale cold skin, can be and marbling. Cardiac sounds are muffled, there is a tendency to bradycardia in most cases. Blood pressure (mainly systolic) reduced. For children with hypotonia are characteristic neuropsychiatric disorders: irritability, emotional lability, anxiety, dependence of the physical state of the weather, anxiety, decreased mental and physical activity, feeling short of breath, sighs (characterized by respiratory neurosis). The health of the child deteriorates in a stuffy, poorly ventilated areas.
Hypotension in children can also be the symptoms listed below:
- nausea or vomiting
- accumulation of gas in the intestines
- abdominal pain of spastic character
- bowel dyskinesia
- a feeling of disruption in the heart
In the morning hours (less frequently at other times of day) can meet tsefalgii. They prevail upon awakening. Comes weakness and malaise. Intense headaches, seizures come, have a pulsating character. The localization of pain in most cases, in the fronto-parietal region. The pain is due to changes in the weather or under the influence of emotional factors. When changing the position of the body can be dizziness.
Hypotonia in children are divided by severity according to the criteria listed below:
- the intensity of cardialgia
- stable arterial hypotension
- degree of psychological disadaptation
- the presence and frequency of autonomic crises
- down-and orthostatic syncope
Syncope (fainting) – are in severe hypertension (hypotension) in children. The child briefly loses consciousness, disturbed postural tone with disorders of the cardiovascular and respiratory activities. When it starts to faint, appear tinnitus, dizziness, severe weakness, blackouts may also be discomfort in the abdomen. Then decreasing muscle tone, the child settles on the floor, pale, breathing becomes shallow, blood pressure decreases. Consciousness can recover on their own or after the adoption of urgent measures. After that may persist nausea or a slight whirling head.
Diagnosis of hypotonia in children:
Diagnosis of arterial hypotension includes:
- medical history
- the study of autonomic homeostasis
- blood test: clinical and biochemical (glucose, activity rate, cholesterol, etc.)
- psychological testing (sometimes)
Treatment of hypotension in children:
Yourself there are nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods of treatment of hypotension in children. With labile arterial hypotension is better to conduct therapy without medication. If hypotension persistent and long lasting, use a combination of non-pharmacological therapies and medicines.
Not medication infant hypotonia:
- the normalization mode of the child
- the full sleep at night
- stay-daily in the fresh air for about 2 hours
- charging in the morning
- water treatments after charging for vascular tone
- eating 4-6 times a day without restrictions on salt optimal water regime
Treatment of hypotension in a child without medications includes massage:
– cervical area
– calf muscles
Hypotension use of physiotherapeutic methods of treatment –electrophoresis on the collar area with solutions of caffeine, magnesium sulfate, brancoveanu mezatona. For children and adolescents relevant as treatment and water treatment — the fan and the circular of the soul, underwater shower-massage. Doctors may recommend therapeutic baths, psychotherapy, etc.
If not drug therapy in hypotension effect does not apply such preparations:
In most cases, treatment of hypotension in children medication beginning with adaptogens, mostly of plant. These medications give a child 1 time per 24 hours in the morning. The course takes up to 3 weeks. The use of neuroprotective drugs should children with arterial hypotension, as they often cerebral insufficiency and immaturity of the cortical-subcortical relationships.
In the treatment of pediatric hypotension effective these medicines:
- phenibut, etc.
If there is a need in the improvement of cerebral hemodynamics and microcirculation, the courses give a child Cinnarizine, Vinpocetine. Optimizing the metabolic effects of Actovegin and oxybral. Doctors can prescribe a child anti-oxidant therapy and correction of energy-deficient diathesis. Tranquilizers are prescribed to children with emotional tension, neurotic symptoms, disguised anxiety and phobias. Mainly used tranquilizers activating steps, daytime anxiolytics (grandaxinum, trioxazine).
In any case, to ensure an integrated approach is needed. Because self-selection of medications and other methods may not have the desired effect. Be sure to consult an experienced doctor.
Prevention of hypotension in children:
For the prevention of hypotension in children is important food. You need to eat 4 to 6 times a day, small portions. Before going to sleep to eat not only for children with hypotonia, but also for people of any age and with various diagnoses (unless otherwise prescribed by your doctor). Late in the evening it is better to give the child a light meal – for example, vegetable salads without mayonnaise.
Those with hypotension, it is better to include in the diet more protein. For Breakfast better to eat curd or cheese. A large amount of protein found in peas, beans, lentils. It is worth considering, when you painted the diet for the child. A large number of sweets to children with hypotension is not recommended, even from inexperienced parents sometimes you can hear a different opinion. If you give a kid sweet, may it be dark chocolate, marshmallows or candy. You can also include in the diet of the child with hypotonia dried fruits and fruit orange.
Adolescents with hypotension can you drink coffee: ground or instant. Caffeine stimulates the body. Among drinks increases blood pressure and black tea. It should be noted that for the prevention of hypotension give children preparations of ginseng. It is better to conduct prevention of autumn-winter period. Among the effective herbal remedies Siberian ginseng and oplopanax. We should not think that these are harmless drugs. About their use need to consult with your doctor.
You need to eliminate stress from the life of a child. Feed it positive emotions. It is useful that the child had Hobbies and played sports.