Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases is a group of diseases caused by penetration into the body of pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms.

To pathogenic microbe caused the disease, he must have virulently, i.e. the ability to overcome the body’s resistance and show toxic effect. Some pathogenic agents causing poisoning of the body secreted by them during the life of the exotoxins (tetanus, diphtheria), others — free toxins (endotoxins) in the destruction of their bodies (cholera, typhoid).

One of the features of infectious diseases is the presence of the incubation period, i.e. the period from time of infection until the first signs. The duration of this period depends on the method of infection and type of pathogen, and can last from several hours to several years (the last rarely). Place penetration of microorganisms into the body is called the atrium. For each type of disease has its own entrance gate, so for example, Vibrio cholerae enters the body through the mouth and not able to penetrate through the skin.

Classification of infectious diseases:

  • intestinal (cholera, dysentery, salmonellosis, esherihioz);
  • respiratory tract (flu, adenovirus infection, pertussis, measles, chickenpox);
  • “blood” (malaria, HIV);
  • of integument (anthrax);
  • with different mechanisms of transmission (enterovirus infection).

Depending on the nature of infectious disease are classified as:

  • prion disease (Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, Kuru, familial fatal insomnia);
  • viral (influenza, parainfluenza, measles, viral hepatitis, HIV infection, cytomegalovirus infection);
  • bacterial (plague, cholera, dysentery, salmonellosis, streptococcal, staphylococcal infections);
  • protozoology (malaria, amebiasis, balantidiasis, toxoplasmosis);
  • worms (enterobiasis, ascariasis, trichinosis, toxocariasis);
  • tick-borne infections (scabies, pediculosis).


  • immunisation
  • quarantine measures;
  • cures the source of infection.

Quarantine — is a complex of measures to stop the spread of infection includes isolation of previously diseased, disinfect the place of residence of patients, identification of contact with patients, etc.

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