Jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes, which is especially noticeable on the eye sclera, the lower surface of the tongue (if the language is to raise the upper palate), as well as on the palms. It is here that the yellowness is manifested primarily. Yellowing of the skin accompanied by dark urine – urine “color of beer” – that’s a symptom of just before.
Yellowing of the skin is often a sign of increased content of bilirubin in the blood. Sometimes the skin turns yellow when elevated blood levels of carotene, is what happens when you abuse carrot or orange diets.
Bilirubin is a pigment of the blood, which is a degradation product of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin, in turn, is the iron-containing protein that performs a transport function for oxygen and carbon dioxide and is contained in red blood cells – red blood cells.
Bilirubin is direct and indirect.
Formed after the breakdown of hemoglobin, bilirubin binds to a protein of blood plasma. This bilirubin is called indirect, it is not soluble in water and can not excreted from the body in urine or bile.
Indirect bilirubin reaches the liver, where it undergoes a series of biochemical reactions that leads to the formation of direct bilirubin. Direct bilirubin is freely excreted with bile into the intestine, and urine.
Causes of jaundice
Liver disease (acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, cysts, parasitic lesions, benign and malignant neoplasms, Gilbert’s syndrome, etc.).
Diseases of the biliary tract (narrowing, tumors, calculi gall bladder and biliary tract).
The result of increased destruction of red blood cells (some congenital diseases of the blood, in cases of poisoning by drugs, alcohol, poisons, in extensive burns, hemorrhage).
There is a false jaundice, when only the skin is painted (not slimy), due to the accumulation of carotenes excessive consumption of carrots, oranges, pumpkins, drugs( quinacrine, picric acid).
Types of jaundice:
Depending on what level suffers the process of excretion of bilirubin from the body, distinguish 3 types of jaundice:
Hemolytic jaundice occurs when an accelerated breakdown of hemoglobin when bilirubin is formed so much that the liver does not have time to convert the indirect bilirubin to direct. Therefore, in this type of jaundice elevated indirect bilirubin.
Hepatic jaundice due to the liver under the influence of any causes: viral hepatitis, drug or toxic liver damage, cirrhosis, alcohol damage, leptospirosis, pseudotuberculosis, etc. While in the blood often increases the content of direct bilirubin, due to reverse its absorption into the bloodstream due to the inability of liver cells to the processing.
Cholestatic jaundice. Is the consequence of disturbance of the movement of bile due to blockage of the bile ducts. This can occur when closure of the bile ducts or gall bladder stone or tumor. If cholestatic jaundice have also largely increased conjugated bilirubin, which is associated with excessive accumulation in the bile ducts and reverse absorption into the blood.
The most frequent infectious causes of jaundice are hepatitis A, b or C. Acute viral hepatitis is jaundice may be accompanied by fever, various dyspeptic phenomena – abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, violation chairs.
You should not try to treat jaundice, this can lead to negative consequences. In the literature (on the Internet) often meet folk recipes for the treatment of jaundice. There are those who recommend treatment choleretic concoctions, but if jaundice is caused by gallstones and bile ducts, then this treatment will aggravate the condition. Don’t wait for complications! The sooner treatment begins under the supervision of a physician, the easier it will be to cope with jaundice.
What to do when jaundice
When you see yellow staining of the skin, sclera of the eyes, palms need to consult a doctor to determine the cause. If the condition is acute (poisoning, burns, etc.), you need to call an ambulance.
To what doctors to treat jaundice
The emergency doctor
At the first signs of yellowing skin or mucous membranes, and also at dark urine should immediately consult a doctor!