Mumps is an acute viral disease in which there is inflammation of the salivary glands. The most commonly mumps affects children aged 5-15 years, but can be ill adults.
As a rule, the disease is not very hard. However, the mumps has a variety of dangerous complications. To insure against the adverse course of the disease is necessary to prevent the possibility of the development of parotitis. For this purpose there is a vaccine for mumps, which is included in the list of mandatory vaccinations for all countries of the world.
Causes of mumps
Infection occurs through airborne droplets (coughing, sneezing, talking) of a human patient. Sick with mumps is contagious for 1-2 days before the appearance of the first signs of illness and for 9 days after it started (the maximum isolation of the virus – from the third to the fifth day). After ingestion, the virus multiplies in the glandular tissue and can affect almost all glands of the body – sex, salivary, pancreatic, and thyroid. Changes in the work of most glands rarely reach the level at which you begin to experience specific complaints and symptoms, but the salivary glands are affected first and most.
Symptoms of mumps
The disease usually begins acutely. Temperatures can soar to 40 degrees, there is pain in the ear or in front of him, especially when chewing and swallowing, excessive salivation. Especially the sharp pain caused by ingestion of food causing profuse salivation (e.g., acidic). Inflammation of the parotid gland causes an increase in the cheeks in front of the Pinna appears rapidly spreading swelling, which maximally increases to 5-6 th day. The earlobe is bulged upward and anteriorly, which gives the patient a characteristic appearance. The feeling of this place is painful. Fever lasts for 5-7 days.
Complications of mumps
From complications of mumps are the most frequent inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) and gonads. Possible inflammation of the thyroid and other glands of the body, as well as damage to the nervous system in the form of meningitis or encephalitis.
Pancreatitis begins with a sharp pain in the abdomen (often girdling), vomiting, loss of appetite, disorders of the chair. If you paid attention to the emergence of such symptoms should immediately consult a physician.
The defeat of the gonads can be both boys and girls. If boys inflammation of the testicles is quite noticeable, due to their anatomical location and enough bright clinical picture (new rising of temperature, testicular pain, discoloration of the skin over it), the girls diagnosis of ovarian lesions is difficult. The consequence of such inflammation may be subsequently testicular atrophy and male infertility, atrophy of the ovaries, infertility, menstrual dysfunction in women.
Treatment of mumps
Specific treatment for mumps not. The disease is most dangerous in boys puberty, in connection with the possible defeat of the testicles. Treatment is aimed at prevention of complications. Do not self-medicate. Only a doctor can correctly diagnose and test, not affected by whether the other glands.
In typical cases, the diagnosis does not cause difficulties immediately and the doctor prescribes a treatment. In doubtful cases, the doctor may order additional diagnostic methods. Patients are encouraged to stay in bed for 7-10 days. It is known that boys who have not kept on bed rest for 1 week, orchitis (inflammation of testicles) develops in about 3 times more often. It is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the oral cavity. To do this, assign daily rinsing with 2% soda solution or other disinfectants.
The affected salivary gland warm place dry dressing. Patients prescribed liquid or powdered food. For the prevention of inflammation of the pancreas, in addition, you must adhere to certain diets: avoid overeating, reduce the amount of white bread, pasta, fat, cabbage. The diet should be lacto-vegetarian. From croup better to eat rice, allowed black bread, potatoes.
Prevention of mumps
The risk of complications of mumps is not in doubt. That is why, as common methods of prevention of this disease in the form of the establishment of the quarantine in the groups of children and immunization. The patient is isolated until the 9th day of the disease; children who were in contact with the patient are not allowed to attend childcare facilities (crèches, kindergartens, schools) within 21 days. However, the problem is that 30-40% of those infected with the virus, no sign of the disease does not occur (asymptomatic). Therefore, to avoid mumps, hiding from patients, it is not always possible. Accordingly, the only acceptable way of prevention is vaccination. According to the immunisation schedule in United States vaccination against mumps is carried out in 12 months and 6 years.