Knee is the largest joint in the body. The upper and lower bone of the knee are separated by two discs (menisci). Thigh and Shin bones (tibia and fibula) are connected by ligaments, tendons and muscles. The surface of the bones inside the knee joint are covered with articular cartilage, which absorbs shocks and provides a smooth, sliding surface for movement of the joint.
Injury or knee injury – the most common causes of lameness; active older children often stretching muscles and ligaments that heal without outside interference after a while.
knee Pain in children may be associated with damage to various structures of the knee (cartilage, tendons, periarticular bags, etc.).
Causes of knee pain in children:
1. Sudden (acute) injuries.
Damage (injury) is the most common cause of knee pain. Sudden (acute) injuries may be caused by a direct blow to the knee or abnormal twisting, bending the knee, or falling on the knee. Pain, bruising or swelling can be strong and develop within a few minutes after the injury. Nerves or blood vessels during injury may be subject to pinching or damage. You may feel numbness, weakness, cold, tingling in the knee or lower leg; they may be pale or blue.
2. Acute injuries of the knee include:
– Sprains, strains, or other injuries to the ligaments and tendons that connect and support the knee Cup.
Rips elastic cartilage discs of the knee joint (meniscus).
– Torn ligaments. The most commonly damaged ligament is the tibial collateral ligament.
– Fracture (fracture) knee calyx, the lower part of the thigh, or the upper part of the tibia or fibula. Fractures of the knee most often occurs as a result of abnormal forces, such as falling on the knee, severe twisting of the knee, a large force that bends the knee, or when the knee is forcefully beating on any subject.
– Dislocated (dislocated) knee cups. This type of bias often occurs in girls from 13 to 18 years. Particles of bone or soft tissue (joint mouse) when you fracture or displacement can become lodged in the joint and interfere with its movement.
– Displacement (dislocation) of the knee joint. This is a rare injury that requires great strength. This is a serious injury and requires immediate medical intervention.
3. Damage due to overloading.
Damage from overloads occur when repetitive motions or repeated or prolonged pressure on the knee. Such activities as climbing stairs, Cycling, Jogging or jumping load your joints and other tissues, and may lead to irritation and inflammation.
Damage due to overload include:
– Inflammation of the small bags with a liquid that absorbs and lubricates the knee (bursitis).
– Inflammation of the tendons (tendonitis) or small tears of the tendons (tendinosis).
– Thickening or wrinkling in the ligaments of the joint (syndrome fibrinous film).
– Pain in the front of the knee overload, injury, excess weight, or problems in the patella (knee pain syndrome-femoral joint).
– Irritation and inflammation of the band of fibrous tissue that runs from the outer side of the femur syndrome (ilio-tibial ligament).
4. Conditions that can cause pain in the knee.
In the knee and around it can also cause problems, not directly related to injury or overload.
– In children and adolescents aged 11-15 years, there is a disease Osgood-Shlatter. She shows her sharp pain in the front of the knee where the patella tendon attaches to the tibia (Shin bone). This place gets painful sensitivity. The cause of the disease with accuracy is not installed. The disease is particularly common among children involved in sports, and may simply be a result of trauma.
– Popliteal cyst (or Baker’s cyst) is the cause of the swelling back of knee.
Infection in the skin (cellulitis), joint (infectious arthritis), bones (osteomyelitis), or synovial bag (septic bursitis of the knee) can cause pain and limited motion in the knee.
– Sometimes the pain in the knee may cause a problem in other parts of the body, for example, such as a pinched nerve or a problem in the hip.
– Osteochondritis dissecans is becoming a cause of knee pain and stiffness, when a piece of bone or cartilage, or both the inside of the knee joint is deprived of blood flow and dies.
– Pain in the knee when the mechanical load with the block joint in children under 10 years of age may be secondary and due to a congenital malformation of the meniscus. Most often found a discoid lateral meniscus. For older children is typical of traumatic ruptures of normal menisci, they are treated the same as adults.