Polio is a highly dangerous viral infection that affects the nervous tissue and leads to serious post-infectious complications up to paralysis. Immunization against polio led to a significant reduction in the incidence of this infection. There are two types of polio vaccine: inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and live oral polio vaccine (OPV). If your child is scheduled vaccination against polio, be sure to ask your doctor which vaccine will be introduced and how.
Oral live polio vaccine contains live attenuated polio virus. It comes in the form of droplets and is administered by instillation into the mouth. Kids drug drip on the lymphoid tissue of the pharynx, older children – on the surface of the tonsils. In these places there are no taste buds, the child will not feel unpleasant taste of the vaccine. The immune system begins to form already in the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx. Within one hour after vaccine administration should not give the child to drink and eat (once in the stomach, the drug is destroyed and vaccination will be ineffective).
Inactivated polio vaccine (Imovax Polio) contains killed viruses of poliomyelitis and is injected intramuscularly or under the skin.
According to the national vaccination calendar USA, vaccination against polio is entered three times: in 3, 4.5 and 6 months. Next spend three revaccination: in 18 months, 20 months and 14 years. Currently children first vaccinated with inactivated polio vaccine, and subsequent immunizations with a live vaccine. There is also a recommendation that children under the age of 1 year should be vaccinated only with inactivated vaccine.
Both vaccines (OPV and IPV) form immunity against all three forms of the virus. The immune system, which is formed after administration of a live vaccine, is much more resistant. However, vaccination with OPV, there are limitations.
A contraindication to the vaccination with a live polio vaccine is:
– diagnosed immunodeficiency (vaccination of the child is conducted strictly on the evidence immunologist only inactivated vaccine);
– the presence in the family of a person suffering from the human immunodeficiency virus (recommended IPV);
– the presence of complications after previous administration of the vaccine (it is necessary to consult immunologist).
Contraindication to immunization with inactivated vaccine is:
– presence of serious allergic reactions or any complications after previous administration of the vaccine;
– the presence of an allergic reaction to the antibiotics: Neomycin, Streptomycin and Polymyxin B.
Typically, vaccination against polio is tolerated quite well. In case of any adverse reactions following immunization should immediately consult a physician.