Polio, or infantile paralysis, is a viral disease of nature. Although polio — a mainly childhood disease that them sick and adults, and they are usually especially hard. The polio virus enters the body through the mouth and spreads to the throat and digestive system. Breaking the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract or digestive tract, the virus enters the brain and spinal cord. The polio virus can be transmitted by direct contact with urine, feces or infected saliva. The polio cases steel is now uncommon as a result of vaccination.
Symptoms of polio
A more common form is polio without the development of paralysis. He may manifest the following symptoms:
– fever, headache, vomiting
– weakness in the muscles and or muscle tension of the neck and back (as expressed during the entire period of fever);
– difficulty swallowing
– the temperature is kept for three days or more
After several weeks of the existence of such symptoms, the patient recovers completely.
Predict the worst possible the paralytic form of CNS that appears when pain in the limbs and back are replaced by paralysis of certain muscles of the trunk, limbs, neck, i.e. their utter weakness and inability to arbitrary motion. Usually suffers only a part of one of the limbs, but sometimes the paralysis extends in an upward direction on the muscles innervated by the oblong brain. Possible death due to paralysis of the respiratory muscles or the muscles of the pharynx. The severity of the paralysis reaches its maximum for one week, after which more than half of the patients gradually complete restoration of muscle function. However, about 1/4 of patients with the paralytic form of polio remain disabled.
Self-treatment of polio
If you suspect the disease should immediately consult the doctor
Clinical treatment of polio
A doctor can confirm a diagnosis on the basis of physical examination and observation, the study of the history of the disease. In addition, there may be additional tests, such as lumbar puncture, to estimate the number of white blood cells, glucose and protein in cerebrospinal fluid and pressure therein. If the patient’s condition worsens or progresses, hospitalization is required. In the treatment of polio in the first place important absolute rest, which will reduce the likelihood of osteo-articular complications: bed rest, support the use of corsets. In addition, apply physiotherapy to prevent joint stiffness – hot compresses on the area painful muscles, physiotherapy under the supervision of a physician. Sometimes prescribed drugs with anti-inflammatory, analgesics and tranquilizers.
Prevention of polio is carried out using inactivated polio vaccine.
As a result of extensive scientific research in 1958-1960 been proved its safety and efficacy, and then began a wide immunization, which has led to a dramatic decrease in morbidity and in some areas to complete its liquidation. However, experts warn that without further continuation of vaccination risk again to deal with this debilitating, potentially fatal disease could return. Immunization against polio is the age set by the National calendar of preventive vaccination: vaccination three times in 3 months, 4.5 months and 6 months, single booster at 18 months, 24 months, 6 years. In most cases, it provides a lifetime of protection.
If you suspect a polio patient should be hospitalized and isolated. Avoid unnecessary contact with patients in whom the diagnosis of polio was confirmed or suspected. Other preventive measures include the prevention of excessive fatigue and colds, suspended operations on nose and throat to autumn. You should protect food from flies, and to refrain from swimming in polluted waters.