Medicine has proven that overweight increases the risk of many serious diseases. Especially dangerous excess weight, when it comes to a pregnant woman. Therefore, during pregnancy it is extremely important to eat right and avoid obesity.
Danger of Obesity
A pregnant woman with excessive body weight initially and ( or ) excess weight gain increases the risk of:
- development of late toxicosis ( especially the increase in blood pressure, swelling, the appearance of protein in the urine, this interferes with the work of many organs and systems of the future mother ), premature aging of placenta;
- occurrence of hypoxia ( oxygen deficiency ) fetus;
- birth of large fetus;
- occurrence of weakness of labor activity, often observed in post-term pregnancy.
Weight gain during pregnancy
Every woman’s rate of weight gain is largely individual. It depends on the body mass index which can be calculated by the following formula: body weight in kilograms divide by your height in meters squared. The normal index in the range of 19.8 to 25.9. The smaller the index of body weight, the more you can add in the range 10-14 kg. If you are expecting the birth of twins, to these figures add the 2,3 – 4,6 kg.
As a rule, pregnant women add about 40% of the total weight gain in the first half of pregnancy and 60% in the second. If a woman before pregnancy was normal weight in the 1st trimester, it can add 1.5 – 2 kg. Sometimes when expressed early toxicosis may be not gain, and weight loss, which sometimes requires hospitalization women.
During the 2 trimester a woman should gain at 0.3 – 0.4 kg a week. For the entire ninth month is allowed to draw no more than 0.5 – 1 kg. it is Possible that over the last month the expectant mother generally is not increased, and even before birth will lose a little weight. The weight should be increased evenly and continuously, because this also depends on the normal development of the child.
Often, the originally slender women during pregnancy gain weight more – and they have that right, because during pregnancy your physiological make up for the deficit of mass. So, if in the first two months for all rate – 0.5 kg in 20 weeks, thin woman is allowed to recruit already 5.4 kg, a woman of medium build – 4.8 kg, and the expectant mother with pre-pregnancy overweight – only 2.9 kg In 32 weeks total weight gain may be, respectively, 11,3; 10 and 6.4 kg, and 40 weeks – 15,2; of 13.6 and 9.1 kg.
It should be noted that the “pure” weight of a pregnant woman can emerge not only from the above points and deposits in adipose tissue – it may impact arising from the development of preeclampsia edema, because “water” also has its weight! Therefore, when a sharp increase in weekly weight gain, especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, you need to pay attention to the appearance of constrictions around the ankles after wearing socks, rings and shoes in the evening becoming close, to count the number of drunk and allocated liquid a day ( this number should not exceed number of second ). All this indirect signs of accumulation of fluid in the body edema formation. With these problems, you must hurry to your doctor.
Pregnancy Diet & Nutrition
In the diet of pregnant women should be about 100-120 g of protein a day. This number should include about 70-90 g of animal protein through milk, cheese, yogurt, fermented baked milk, yogurt, eggs, meat and fish. During pregnancy the need for fats ( the fats are all coming from food ) is 80-100 g, of which at least 20 g of plant origin. Carbohydrates in the diet pregnant should be no more than 350-400 grams per day. In the second half of pregnancy is necessary to reduce the amount of carbohydrates consumed up to 300 g per day by reducing the diet the amount of bread, flour products, sugar and to increase the amount of proteins. It is preferable to eat 4-5 times a day in small portions. At that recommend such a distribution of calories: Breakfast – 30%, second Breakfast – 10%, lunch – 40%, afternoon snack 10%, dinner – 10%. The last meal should be for 2-3 hours before bedtime, and consist of easily digestible foods ( yogurt, cottage cheese ).
Dishes are boiled, stewed, baked. Special temperature regime of dishes is not required. Salt restricted to 5-6 g per day, as it contributes to fluid retention, which also provokes pathological weight gain. Per day is recommended to drink 1-1,5 liters of liquid. Mandatory daily intake of combined multivitamin and mineral preparations for pregnant women.
What to Eat during pregnancy
- Bread and flour products: 100-150 grams per day. This number includes: white bread their flour I and II grade yesterday’s baking or slightly dried, dietary salt-free bread, wheat bread from flour, bread with bran, rye bread and biscuit.
- Soups: up to 200 g per reception every day. Recommended vegetable soups with a small amount of potato, cereals and pasta. Soups seasoned cream, low-fat sour cream, add chopped greens.
- meat and Meat products: not more than 150 g per day. Low-fat varieties of beef and veal, rabbit meat and poultry ( chicken, Turkey without the skin ) cooked steam cutlets, rolls, meatballs, steam puddings. Allowed boiled meat. After boiling the meat can be baked or to make jellied dishes.
- Fish: low-fat – no more than 150 grams per day. Cod, ice fish, perch, saffron cod, etc., you can boil or cook in a steam souffle or cutlets, meatballs, fish, mashed potatoes, rolls, etc.
- Milk and dairy products: whole milk – 200 g per day if there are no problems with allergens and tolerability of milk. Milk can be added to tea, porridge, cook milk soups. Allowed to sour low-fat cottage cheese ( 100-200 g per day ), low-fat yogurt or yogurt, low-fat and unsweetened yogurt ( also 100-200 g per day ).
- Eggs: 1-2 pieces per week – boiled, “in the bag”, in the form of steam omelets.
- Fat: creamy unsalted butter, including ghee. Vegetable oil are allowed only as an addition to dishes, not more than 15 g per day.
- cereal Grains and pasta: cereals in addition to soups. Friable porridge made of buckwheat, barley cereals can be introduced into the diet only due to the reduction of bread. Same goes for the vermicelli, and other macaroni products in small quantity can be added to soups ( if you don’t put cereal in them ) or occasionally to use as a garnish ( again, if this day you refuse bread and cereals ).
- Vegetables:, all varieties of cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, squash, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce. Vegetables that can be eaten raw, better to use that way. Recommended kohlrabi, carrots and artichoke, grated on a grater. Green peas, any beans, radishes, beets, boiled carrots are acceptable in limited quantities, green onions, dill, parsley – like seasoning to the dishes. Vegetables can also be prepared in the form of puree, steam souffles, puddings, cutlets, etc.
- Appetizers: salads of raw and pickled ( after rinsing ), vegetables with the addition of boiled meat and fish. Jellied fish and meat. Low-fat and unsalted ham.
- Sauces: resolved milk and fruit sauces, breaded flour with the addition of a small amount of butter or sour cream.
- Species: chopped parsley or dill, Bay leaf, cinnamon, cloves ( a small amount ).
- Fruits: sour-sweet varieties in raw or cooked, unsweetened fruit drinks from them.
- Sweets: in the case of excessively rapid weight gain sweets will have to be limited.
- Drinks: weak tea with milk; unsweetened juices of fruits, berries and vegetables, diluted with boiled water, broth hips.
Healthy Diet & Nutrition for Pregnant
Here are few simple tips that will help you to avoid problems with unwanted add daily grams:
- Basic principle of nutrition during pregnancy – moderation in eating. Your portions should not grow with your tummy. That you now two, doesn’t mean you have to eat “for two”. To withdraw from the table should be with a sense of mild hunger and not feeling full, overly full.
- Main condition for proper construction of the food regime – food must be quality and variety in the daily and weekly scale, while each individual meal should consist of one or two items. If you can see a table Laden with various dishes, I must resist the temptation to try each.
- Needs to be included in daily diet as many vegetables, fruits and berries in kind. Pregnant woman need to eat fresh vegetables and fruits, berries and vegetable greens to provide your body and the developing fetus in minerals and vitamins in sufficient quantity.
- It is better to eat conventional food that is peculiar to the band of your permanent residence and your race. So, for residents of the middle band more than the usual cabbage and apples than oranges and pineapples.
- Not recommended to eat immediately after waking up and in less than 2-3 hours before bedtime. The normal interval between meals is 4-5 hours. Try to maintain normal diet. If food will be accepted in time, your body will already be ready to process it, and therefore, it is better to digest and assimilate.
- Eat at least 4-5 times a day in small portions.
- You can not skip Breakfast or lunch.
- Recommended to remove all “snacks”, especially high-calorie food.
- A glass of water half an hour before meals reduces appetite, don’t forget to follow swelling!
- Do not eat a lot during stress.
- Eat slowly
- Buy products at a pre-established list.
- Don’t buy food in a state of starvation.
- Read the labels. Do not trust the beautiful words: “diet”, “low calorie”, and carefully read the information on the product label. Remember that “low fat” or “fat-free” but sweet yogurt due to the sugar can negate all your efforts to control your weight!
- Cook food with no fat.
What Not to Eat during pregnancy:
- Fresh bread, articles of fancy and puff pastry, cream, cream cakes, cakes, chocolate, candy, cakes and other pastry delights.
- Condensed milk, ice cream, milkshakes.
- Cheese and dairy products with high fat content, sweet yogurts, puddings, curd cheese coated, mass of sweet, like cheesecake, tarts, cheesecakes and more.
- All food related to the “fast food”.
- Fatty meats and fish, bacon, goose, duck, internal organs of animals ( liver, kidney ), brains, smoked products, sausage products, canned meat and fish. Herring, salted and smoked fish, eggs.
- on the whole concentrated meat, fish, mushroom broths and sauces.
- Any fried foods or deep-fried.
- Boiled eggs and fried.
- All the mushrooms.
- Sweet types and varieties of fruits and berries, such as grapes, melon, pears, bananas.
- Vegetables – potatoes in any form.
- Savory snacks; snack bars meat, fish and canned vegetables. Especially in tomato sauce.
- Strong tea, coffee, cocoa.
- Herbs and spices: red pepper and black mustard, horseradish, vinegar, cloves, mayonnaise, ketchup.
Diet for pregnant women categorically excludes of any alcoholic beverages and refined sugar.