The main risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease are obesity, physical inactivity, hypercholesterolemia, Smoking, use of alcoholic beverages.
Obesity and heart disease
Excess body weight puts extra strain on the cardiovascular system. Obesity is excess body weight of a person due to the increased content in the body of fatty tissue. The most common moderate forms of obesity. In most cases, obesity develops due to increased consumption of fats and carbohydrates and thus their consumption is insufficient. Adipose tissue may also be produced, if a person eats rare, but large portions, wherein the body is unable to process large quantities of food and fat. Obesity is divided into primary and secondary. Primary obesity is an independent disease, but is a secondary manifestation of an illness. Important role in the occurrence of obesity heredity plays. Often overweight occurs in women after childbirth.
Formula for approximate calculation of body mass index: WEIGHT (kg) = 50+0.75 x (height (cm)-150)+ (Age-20)/4
Obesity needs to be treated, especially if the person has a hormonal disorder. There should be 4-5 times a day, the main meal should not be in the evening, the diet should limit the amount of carbohydrates and fats (fatty meats, sweets, etc.) you Can eat lean meat, low fat cheese, vegetables, rice, fruits, berries, buckwheat and barley porridge, etc. Restriction in the diet should be combined with physical activity.
Low physical activity
Low physical activity has a name – lack of exercise. Lack of exercise is often associated with obesity. Regular physical activity is good for the cardiovascular system, increasing the efficiency of the heart muscle. During exercise in skeletal muscle is an increase in power consumption, and this in turn trains the heart and blood vessels. Exercise is necessary to monitor their health. If a person has any disease, you need to consult a doctor for the selection of optimal physical activity.
Hypercholesterolemia and heart disease
Hypercholesterolemia provokes the appearance of atherosclerotic plaques, resulting interferes with the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system. For the prevention of hypercholesterolemia is necessary to reduce the intake of animal fats, limit consumption of carbohydrates, enough to eat proteins and vitamins. Especially useful vitamins C and e contained in fruits and vegetables and vitamin B6 contained in bread products and yeast.
Smoking and heart disease
In tobacco smoke, there are many harmful for the cardiovascular system components. Nicotine causes a spasm of the blood vessels and promotes the formation of sclerotic plaques. The substances contained in tobacco smoke, impair the absorption of vitamins. Carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) binds to hemoglobin in denying him the opportunity to deliver oxygen to organs and tissues. Coronary heart disease is more common in people who smoke. Women who smoke the risk of myocardial infarction in 3 times higher than non-smokers. It is believed that the proportion of all cardiovascular diseases caused by Smoking, that’s why it’s so important to give up this bad habit.
Excessive alcohol consumption is harmful to the cardiovascular system. Alcoholic beverages contain ethyl alcohol, which even in small quantities is very toxic and harmful to the heart muscle. Alcohol causes the development of heart failure. Alcohol disrupts electrolyte balance, which is very important for the normal functioning of the myocardium. Disturbed vascular permeability, which entails a violation of vascular tone. People consume alcohol is much more likely to occur stroke, heart attack, more often coronary heart disease.