Proctitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the rectum. Often proctitis combined with inflammatory changes in the sigmoid colon proktoshigmoidit.
Causes of proctitis
In the development of proctitis are set to different factors, which are:
– Nutritional proctitis, resulting from excessive consumption of spicy food, spices, large doses of alcohol;
– Gonorrheal proctitis;
– Congestive proctitis observed in patients suffering from constipation, against the background of venous congestion in the rectal wall and the trauma of its mucous membrane;
– Radiation proctitis, which is a consequence of radiation therapy of malignant tumors of the pelvic organs;
– Parasitic proctitis caused by dysenteric amoeba, trichomonads, balantidiasis.
– Development of proctitis can contribute to hypothermia, diseases of the rectum and adjacent organs hemorrhoids, anal fissure, paraproctitis, abscess red space, prostatitis, cystitis, candidiasis and other
Symptoms of proctitis
Acute proctitis has a sudden onset accompanied by fever, chills, tenesmus (false desires) against constipation, feeling of heaviness in the rectum, severe burning in it. Acute proctitis occurs infrequently, but, having arisen, flows difficult due to the pronounced subjective local sensations.
Acute proctitis may occur in different morphological forms. Catarrhal-hemorrhagic form is characterized by hyperemia of the mucous membrane of the intestine point and diffuse hemorrhages. In catarrhal-purulent form, there is congestion of the mucous membrane with the presence of pus on the surface. Catarrhal-mucous form is manifested by redness of the mucous membrane of the rectum with the presence on its surface mucus. In polypous form on the mucous membrane of the intestine revealed polypoid education. Erosive proctitis is characterized by the presence of erosions in the mucosa of the colon, ulcerative proctitis formation of ulcers.
Ulcerative proctitis is characterized by the presence of multiple erosions or even ulcers on the mucous membrane of the rectum. Ulcerative proctitis is a form of ulcerative colitis. However, the clinical course and treatment of ulcerative proctitis different. Ulcerative proctitis process, capturing a segment or all of the rectum, may not be covered above. Clinical manifestations of the disease is very distinctive. Suddenly there is blood in the form of droplets on the surface of the stool. It can be as bright and dark, in the form of small clots. In the future appear bloody or bloody-mucus in front of a chair or false when the urge. The function of the intestine is not disturbed. The patient usually does not feel any pain. Characteristic of proctitis burning sensation and itching is rare. Radiation ulcerative proctitis often develops after a few months after radiotherapy on the tumor of the prostate or the female genital organs. Patients appear spotting from the rectum, a feeling of heaviness, pressure in the gut, frequent false desires.
Chronic proctitis in contrast to acute very common. Occurs imperceptibly, gradually. Common symptoms are almost absent. Local symptoms also expressed brightly: or just itching in anal area, or weeping, or burning. Sometimes all these things are happening simultaneously.
Often manifestations of chronic proctitis is so slight that the patient avoids recourse to a doctor, use home remedies and continues to lead a normal life. The process in the meantime develops: when eating spicy food increases the burning sensation in the rectum, there are mucous or Muco-purulent discharge, sometimes in the foreground is sharp itching in the anus. The function of the intestine is usually not disturbed.
Chronic proctitis may occur in hypertrophic, normotrophic and atrophic forms. When hypertrophic proctitis folds of the mucous membrane thickened, friable, normotrophic have normal, atrophic smooth mucous membrane thinning. Determined by different degrees of hyperemia and edema of the mucous membrane, sometimes contact her vulnerability.
One of the complications may be the narrowing of the rectum.
Prevention of proctitis
Prevention of proctitis is reduced to timely treatment of diseases that contribute to its emergence.
Treatment of proctitis
The doctor establishes the diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, rectal examination and rectoscopy (rektoromanoskopii). To determine the extent and nature of the inflammatory changes are cytological examination of the intestinal contents, the sowing of feces to determine the composition of the intestinal microflora, a biopsy of the mucosa.
In severe forms of acute proctitis (catarrhal-purulent, erosive, polypous, ulcer) treatment in the hospital. Shown on bed rest, and a diet with a limited amount of fiber, with the exception of spicy, fried food, spices and alcohol. Anti-inflammatory therapy (antibiotics, sulfonamides) is prescribed based on the results of inoculation of feces and the sensitivity of microflora to drugs. Locally applied microclysters with colloid, the infusion of chamomile. When subsidence phenomena of acute inflammation designate oil micro, sitting baths with 0.01% potassium permanganate, perineal warm shower. In severe forms of ulcerative proctitis beneficial effect of corticosteroids.
Treatment of chronic proctitis can be performed on an outpatient basis, using the same tools that you used for the treatment of acute proctitis. It is advisable Spa treatment. Assign mud, intestinal lavage with warm alkaline water type Borjomi, Essentuki, which contribute to the exclusion of mucus and stimulates motor function of the colon. Use the complex of therapeutic measures aimed at combating constipation (massage, exercises abdominals to generate fastening reflex defecation), but not to use laxatives. Treatment of complications of the disease (expressed cicatricial narrowing) of surgical.
When the occurrence of some discomfort, burning or itching in the anus should not self-medicate or a close eye on it and think that it will all go away. During this time, the process can only get worse and lead to complications. And, of course, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease that led to the proctitis.