Scarlet fever is an acute infectious disease characterized by General intoxication, fever, sore throat, and petechial rash all over the body. Sick with scarlet fever usually children. The causative agent is a beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group A. However, the main clinical manifestations of scarlet fever caused not by the Streptococcus, and the toxin that the bacteria produce in the blood.
Causes of scarlet fever
The source of infection are sick with scarlet fever, tonsillitis or Streptococcus carrier. Infection occurs through airborne droplets, sometimes household contact (via toys or household items). Infection can also occur through any damage on the skin (abrasion, cut, operation). In this case, will have the place all the symptoms of scarlet fever, in addition to sore throats.
Symptoms of scarlet fever
The incubation period lasts from 1 to 12 days. The disease begins acutely. The body temperature rises to 38-39 ° C. You experience weakness, headache, pain in the throat when swallowing. During the inspection of the oropharynx, the doctor discovers a classic picture of angina. By the end of the first day of the disease on the neck and upper torso appears abundant petechial rash protruding above the skin merging red spots 1-2 mm in size, which is rapidly spreading throughout the body. The rash is most intense in skin folds of the elbow and underarm. It is often accompanied by itching. The patient’s face “glows”, but around the mouth and nose is pale rim (nasolabial triangle) intact skin. Language under the influence of toxins gets a rich red with prominent papillae (“raspberry” language).
The body temperature remains elevated and the rash lasts for 2-4 days, then gradually disappear. With 5-6 days of illness on the former site of the rash occurs desquamation of the skin, which lasts 2-3 weeks.
In most cases, diagnosis is not difficult and the doctor makes a diagnosis on the clinical picture.
Complications of scarlet fever
Complications of scarlet fever can be divided into two groups – early and late. Early complications associated with spread of infection to surrounding tissues.It may be otitis (inflammation of middle ear), sinusitis, etc. Late complications due to the development of immune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, etc. it Should be noted that the most difficult and dangerous of late allergic complications of scarlet fever develop mainly in cases of improper treatment of scarlet fever.
Treatment of scarlet fever
Upon the slightest suspicion of scarlet fever, you should call the doctor and after diagnosis follow exactly the prescribed destination. Scarlet fever is the disease, which, if timely treatment with antibiotics almost always end happily, and without treatment nearly always result in severe complications. Antibiotics should be used certain times, otherwise complications are very likely.
Pay attention to bed rest until complete reduction of the temperature, drinking plenty of fluids (warning toxic complications). Food should be liquid or semi-liquid with some limitation on protein.
Treatment is done mainly at home. Hospitalization to be patients with severe and moderate form of the disease, and the sick, in the family where there are children from 3 months to 7 years and the students of the first two classes without a history of scarlet fever. Usually, the doctor prescribes antibiotic therapy with penicillin for 5-7 days. In case of intolerance to penicillin may use other antibiotics.
Prevention of scarlet fever
Sick with scarlet fever should be isolated in a separate room, it should provide a separate tableware, towel. Isolation of the patient is terminated after recovery, but not earlier than 10 days from the onset of the disease. Visiting children had been ill with scarlet fever, preschool and the first two classes of schools allowed after additional insulation at home for 12 days after recovery. Children attending preschool and the first two years of school without a history of scarlet fever and were in contact with the patient are not allowed in the team within 7 days from the date of isolation of the patient, and in the case of communication with the patient throughout the period of illness – within 17 days from the beginning of contact.