Staphylococcus is immobile gram-positive bacteria round shape that inhabit the skin and mucous membranes of humans. They don’t usually cause any problems, but with the weakening of protective forces of the body can cause many diseases. For staph more often affects infants, pregnant and nursing women, and people with chronic pathologies and reduced immunity. Staph is a common hospital infection that massively affects patients of medical institutions. Staph causes inflammation after surgical interventions, installation of implants, as well as the use of intravenous catheters and similar medical instruments.
Dangerous to humans are the three species of staphylococci – saprophytic Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus saprophyticus), Staphylococcus epidermis (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus).
Saprophytic Staphylococcus inhabits the mucous membrane of the urethra and is often the cause of cystitis in women.
Epidermis Staphylococcus can live on any parts of the skin and mucous membranes. A healthy person is easy to cope with it, but the people in the intensive care unit, the bacterium penetrates the body, causing severe diseases such as sepsis (blood poisoning), endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), etc.
The most dangerous type of staph Staphylococcus aureus. He is able to hit any organs, causing hundreds of illnesses, from mild to deadly. Staphylococcus aureus has many “devices” that enable it to resist the defensive forces of the body. In addition, it highlights the number of dangerous to humans of toxins. Before the advent of antibiotics serious staph infection leading to death in 9 of 10 cases. The discovery of penicillin helped to effectively deal with the dangerous infection. Staphylococcus aureus but quickly showed his unique ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. Currently the bacterium is resistant to penicillin and many other antibiotics.
Staphylococcus – symptoms and treatment
About 20% of the population are permanent carriers of Staphylococcus aureus, the bacterium does not cause them any symptoms. But in some cases a staph infection can affect the internal organs, causing diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, peritonitis, endocarditis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, etc. In young children Staphylococcus aureus may cause severe illness Ritter, which is called “syndrome scalded babies”. When her baby skin covered with bubbles, as after a burn. Staphylococcus also causes mastitis in lactating women. In addition, this bacterium causes toxic shock syndrome, which sometimes occurs when using of tampons during menstruation.
Most people at least once in his life faced with problems caused by Staphylococcus aureus. This bacteria becomes a cause of skin diseases such as pimples, pyoderma, boils, carbuncles, gidradenity felon. They usually occur as a result of violation of the integrity of the skin in the places of cuts, scuffs, etc. Staphylococcus aureus causes suppuration of wounds and formation of abscesses. In addition, the bacterium causes phlegmon – spilled purulent inflammation, such as cellulitis. But I mean not widely known cosmetic issue, and purulent inflammation of subcutaneous fat.
Staphylococcus aureus can be transmitted by contact from person to person. To prevent diseases you must follow the personal hygiene – wash hands frequently, don’t use other people’s towels and razors, to treat wounds and apply bandages on them, to avoid touching the skin lesions. In hospitals, the bacterium is frequently transmitted via the hands of medical staff. Special attention to the fight against staphylococci should be given in hospital as newborns are very vulnerable to infection. Pregnant women are usually screened for carriage of Staphylococcus before birth, so they didn’t infect their other children.
Staphylococcus aureus can cause food poisoning. The disease is caused by toxins that are produced by bacteria multiplying in the food. This occurs if food is stored for long periods at room temperature. Most often Staphylococcus multiplies in meat, salads, eggs, cream cakes and pastries, dairy products. Symptoms of poisoning – nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain occur within hours after eating contaminated food. The disease usually lasts 2-3 days. Treatment is aimed at alleviating symptoms. In taking antibiotics is not necessary, because the poisoning is caused by Staphylococcus aureus and its toxins, soiled food.