Stuttering (logoneurosis) is the violation of the smoothness and rhythm of speech.&This complex speech pathology, caused by spasms of the muscles of the speech apparatus. Most often, the stuttering appears in children from 2 to 5 years, when formed and is actively developing phrase speech. The appearance of it can be sudden and in the process of development of the baby increase.
Small children often repeat normally utter the words: “give, Give, give me water”. But can be repeated only a child sounds: “g-g-give me water”. Experts believe that the repetition of the sound more than 2 times is the initial manifestation of stuttering.
Children stuttering notes, according to international statistics 2-3% of children. In girls, the pathology of speech occurs 4 times less frequently than boys. I assume that this is due to the greater emotional stability of the girls. Stuttering increases in the first year of school and adolescence. It affects the child’s behavior and its adaptation in the team.
Stuttering can manifest in the form of repetition of sounds or syllables, suddenly forced stop of speech. Often meet in the monolog sounds-parasites “uh-uh”, “M-m-m…” that is connected with the internal struggle of a child trying to cope with stuttering.
Some children stutter only appears during the period of excitement or stress. In a quiet environment, the child forgets about their problems with speech. And when talking on the phone, communicating with an unfamiliar person, in a public speech strongly stutters.
Causes of Stuttering (Logoneurosis)
Stuttering is the most common children’s neurosis. it is Usually called a logoneurosis. The delay in the pronunciation of sounds and syllables associated with spasms of the speech muscles: muscles of the tongue, lips, larynx. They may be tonic clonic.
With tonic convulsions (the tension in those muscles) is difficult to overcome a failure in speech, in connection with which the observed difficulties with the pronunciation of consonants. When clonic convulsions are noted the repetition of initial sounds or syllables of words, pronunciation extra vowels (and, and) before a word or phrase. Although quite often the stuttering is tonic-clonic.
Physiological causes of stuttering:
- damage to the nervous system after birth injury;
- smoking and consumption of alcohol by the mother during pregnancy; genetic predisposition;
- brain injury;
- diseases of the organs of speech (larynx, nose, pharynx);
- changes in the nervous system due to disease (rickets, infectious diseases);
- retraining left-handed to right-handed.
Psychological causes of stuttering:
- stress, emotional shocks;
- loss of a loved one;
- neurotic reactions: childhood fears (fear of darkness, of punishment, etc.);
- a strong feeling of resentment, of jealousy;
- the desire to draw the attention of parents;
- strong fear (thunderstorms, dogs, scenes of horror in the film).
Social causes of stuttering:
- excessive parental strictness;
- imitation of stammering to a family member or another child;
- overload toddler speech material (early learning of a foreign language or even multiple languages)
- lack of parental attention in the formation of speech, which leads to a quick, hasty of speech and the omission of syllables;
- transfer the baby to another kindergarten or school;
- moving to another residence.
These factors can also to provoke stuttering in a child:
- fatigue of the child (burden on the school curriculum, the uncontrolled watching television, long computer games, etc.);
- family troubles and scandals; problems at school;
- an unbalanced diet with an excess amount of protein in the diet;
- the period of dentition and puberty;
- disorders of the endocrine system;
- infectious disease.
Prevention of Stuttering
In the identification of stuttering in the child does not need to draw attention to this speech, not to consolidate the conditioned reflex its occurrence. the Baby must be made to understand: it is interesting that he wants to say, and not what he says. Parental anxiety about the speech impediment even more depressing child.
An important task for parents is protecting the child from ridicule, not to give to produce inferiority complex and low self-esteem. Children are often cruel, and the staff can be a fan of baiting the stammering child.
If the teacher cannot correct the situation, and ridicule, enforced isolation of child in the team continues, the child for the period of treatment should stop visiting the kindergarten. Otherwise generated shyness and closeness of the child to further exacerbate stuttering.
School-age children need to help keep your self-esteem, to show their strengths, abilities to gain prestige among peers and to avoid alienation, to facilitate social adaptation.
To help the child to cope with the emerging disease, parents and other family members must follow the simple rules:
- to monitor your speech: speak slowly and smoothly, do a short pause after each phrase;
- child will try to imitate and speak as well; not to kill the baby, always give him the opportunity to finish it;
- with your child learn songs;
- in a conversation with the child to use short sentences; avoid the bustle and chaos in the family way of life;
- to prevent quarrels and tension in the family;
- to strictly monitor compliance with child mode of the day, to exclude the possibility of fatigue and overstimulation of the baby;
- should not force the child to repeat many times the difficult words; the baby should less likely to make comments and more praise;
- to prevent a constant “background” TV in the apartment;
- to exclude watching television a child before going to sleep;
- not create the child no favors in the conduct and discipline in the family in connection with his stuttering.
In some cases, the stuttering resolves on its own, without treatment. Stuttering, which can pass on its own, has such characteristics:
- the child did not have any psychological difficulties during intercourse, he is not ashamed of his defect;
- stutter periodically disappears for a long period of time;
- the child is not confined and does not avoid spoken communication;
- short words and phrases speak out easily.
If a child is tensed during the conversation, grimaces, pauses in speech with the interruption of breathing, stretches vowels, avoids the use of some words and sounds to the questions (even obvious) answers “I don’t know!” – you need to apply for a consultation with a speech therapist. And it is necessary to find a specialist who already has experience with such children.
Children s not always possible to cure completely. Should consult a speech therapist and a neurologist or neuropsychiatrist for a qualified help. However, there are no such tablets, from the reception which the stuttering will disappear once and for all. Important joint efforts of both specialists and patient parents.
The most successful treatment in the early stages, before school age. Rules of conduct for parents outlined above. it is Important to create the family in a favorable peaceful environment. All conversations with the child should be conducted at a slow pace. Relationship with all the children needs to build so that they would not have feelings of jealousy and rivalry for parental attention.
The child must be sure that it will listen to, despite the speech impediment. We need to find the time for necessary communication with him and shared experiences, interesting child. Even a 10-minute conversation before bedtime has a relaxing effect. Of course, during this conversation, you should not present the child’s claims and to set any conditions. Only from watching TV (even cartoons) before bedtime should be abandoned.
You should not avoid talking with a child theme of stuttering. It is important to praise him if he manages to achieve some success in treatment. even insignificant. He needs to feel emotional support from the parents. You should encourage the child and instill in him confidence in the success of the treatment of this temporary disease.
Methods of treatment of stuttering:
- speech therapy lessons;
- breathing exercises;
- computer programs;
- hypnosis treatment;
- restorative treatment.
For speech lessons are selected an exercise to relieve the tension and make it smooth and rhythmic. the Child repeats the exercises at home for achieving expressiveness of speech. Exercises are selected based on the age of the patient.
The breathing exercises are one of the traditional methods of treatment. They allow you to train the muscles of the apparatus of speech and the vocal cords, learn deeply, freely and rhythmically breathing. Exercise have a beneficial effect on the respiratory system as a whole. in addition, exercises are an additional method of relaxation.
The computer program is one of the effective treatments for stuttering. They make use of the timing of the speech and auditory centers of the brain. The child is at home, sitting in front of a computer, speaks into the microphone the words. a Slight delay with the help of the program allows the child to hear your voice and he tries to adapt to it.
In this case it becomes smooth. The program allows you to talk in situations with emotional overtones (joy, anger, etc.) and suggests how to cope with the circumstances and improve it.
In many cities there are clinics and centers for the treatment of stuttering method of hypnosis for children over 11 years. The method of suggestion, the doctor removes the spasm of the speech muscles, fear of public speaking. If after 3-4 sessions it becomes smooth and confident. It is the emotionally impressive method of psychotherapy.
Alternative medicine offers treatment of stuttering method acupressure. The specialist has an impact on certain points on the face, back, legs, chest. Using this method improves the regulation of speech on the part of the nervous system. Acupressure is recommended to do constantly.
The Medication – an auxiliary method in the treatment of stuttering. It is held for the appointment of a neurologist. Can be used anticonvulsant drugs, sedatives. Treatment helps to normalize the function of the nerve centers. Of sedatives are used decoctions and infusions of herbs (motherwort, Valerian root, lemon balm). to Cure stuttering with the help of some medicines, it is impossible.
Restorative methods contribute to the treatment of stuttering. these include the observance of a day regimen, rational nutrition, healthy habits and abiogenically mode, eliminating a stressful situation. Of particular importance for the child has a sufficient length of sleep (at least 9 hours). That dream was deep in the evening to take a warm shower or relaxing bath (e.g., conifers). Computer games and TV viewing in the evening should be excluded.
The child’s diet should be fortified to include more dairy products and plant foods. it is Recommended to limit the use of meat, spicy food, eliminating the use of strong tea and chocolate.
Children are encouraged to view such movies and programs, which will not cause the child’s strong emotions. do not want to include loudly radio, TV, listening to loud music. No need to indulge the whims of the child, but not have to bring the requirements to the field.Noisy and active games provoke stuttering. Preference should be given to peaceful pursuits (folding puzzles, drawing, checkers, modeling). visit the bustling entertainment activities that excite the child will not benefit.
Fresh air should be daily. But sports, especially competitive, gambling better to exclude.
The Tip for parents:
The identification of stuttering in a child is not a reason to panic. It is important to patiently and systematically to implement the recommendations of the experts and the treatment will be successful. You need time to contact the speech therapist and the neurologist, and at home to create a calm environment conducive to the cure of stuttering. Should not prevent the loud shouts at the baby. The child must believe in themselves and the opportunity to recover, to feel the support of people close to him.