Tetanus — an acute infectious disease with skeletal muscle hypertonicity, periodically coming by convulsions, irritability, phenomena of the General intoxication, high mortality. Tetanus has a high mortality and is second only to rabies and pneumonic plague. The decrease in mortality contributes to tetanus shot, which should be carried out to each child. Adults nuzhdayutsya in periodic revaccination.
Causes of the disease Tetanus
Cause of Tetanus — a large anaerobic Bacillus. This form of the microorganism capable of producing the strongest toxin (poison) that causes increased secretion in the neuromuscular junction. The microorganism is widely distributed in nature, persists in the soil for many years. Is a common harmless inhabitant of the intestines of many animals. Source of infection — animal transfer factor — soil.
Symptoms and treatment of Tetanus
The average incubation period of 5-14 days. The smaller it is, the harder it is tetanus. The symptoms begin with discomfort in the wound area (drawing pain, twitching of muscles around the wound); may General malaise, anxiety, irritability, loss of appetite, headache, chills, low-grade fever. Because of the convulsions masticatory muscles (lockjaw), difficult patient to open his mouth, sometimes even impossible. Spasms of swallowing muscles causes the appearance of the face “sardonic smile”, and difficult swallowing.
These early symptoms are characteristic only for tetanus. Later developed a stiff neck, long back muscles with increasing back pain: a person is forced to lie in a typical situation with thrown back his head and raised above the bed part of the lumbar body. By day 3-4 the tension of the abdominal muscles: legs extended, traffic in them sharply limited the movement of the hands more freely. Due to the sharp tension of the abdominal muscles and diaphragm breathing is shallow and rapid. Due to the contraction of the muscles of the perineum are difficult urination and defecation.
Common convulsions lasting from several seconds to a minute or more different frequencies, often triggered by external stimuli (touching the bed, etc.). The patient’s face was turning blue and was suffering. Due to convulsions may occur asphyxia, cardiac paralysis and breathing. Consciousness throughout the illness and even during seizures saved. Tetanus is usually accompanied by an increase temperature and constant sweating (in many cases from the accession pneumonia and sepsis, even). The higher the temperature, the worse the prognosis.
Hard state is characterized by the patient with a diagnosis of tetanus. The symptoms of the disease at the end of 3-4 weeks or more, but usually 10-12 days significantly improved well-being. I had a tetanus long time can be observed General weakness, muscle stiffness, weakness, cardiovascular activity.
Complications of tetanus: pneumonia, rupture of muscles, compression fracture of the spine.
Treatment of tetanus complex:
- providing complete rest to the patient;
- neutralization of circulating toxin blood;
- reduction or withdrawal seizures
- prevention and treatment of complications, especially pneumonia and sepsis;
- maintaining normal blood gases, acid-base and water-electrolyte balance
- maintain adequate cardiovascular activity;
- improving breathing
- proper nutrition
- control of body functions, careful patient care.
If a person was injured, bitten by animals, etc., required preventative vaccination against tetanus.
Prognosis. a case Fatality rate of tetanus is very high, the prognosis is serious.
Prevention of tetanus. Routine immunization with tetanus toxoid. Prevention of injuries at work and at home.