Infertility treatment has become particularly topical in the last few decades. The welfare and quality of life of people is growing from year to year, however, significantly affected the basic and necessary for procreation functions of the human body. Scientists enthusiastically argue that it is the cause of progressive infertility population: environmental pollution, the rapid development of technology, genetically modified foods, or any other adverse environmental factors, while the number of infertile couples continues to increase.
Today pairs for which topical treatment of infertility in the world not less than 50-80 million. Every year this number increases by 2 million. And it is only those people who addressed his problem to the official medicine. Actually suffering from infertility much more: some sublimate their desire to have children in other areas of life, others resort to adoption, others just put up with the pain. Meanwhile, clinic of reproductive medicine every year solve problems of infertility more and more efficiently, giving happiness of motherhood and fatherhood tens of thousands of pairs.
If several attempts to get pregnant is not successful, do not immediately sound the alarm. Infertility is diagnosed after a year of absence of pregnancy, if regular sexual life without using any contraceptives. If the woman’s age over 35 years, to worry after six months of unsuccessful attempts.
Causes of infertility in couples
Contrary to popular belief that female infertility is more common than for men, the share of both sexes accounted for 40% of cases. The remaining 20% is immunological incompatibility of the partners, or the so-called unexplained infertility.
The most common problems that professionals face in the treatment of female infertility are ovulation disorders, pathology of the uterus and fallopian tubes, endometriosis, hormonal and genetic abnormalities.
All forms of male infertility are characterized by impaired spermatogenesis, that is, in the male sperm does not have the required number of quality sperm. It can happen for various reasons. In the treatment of male infertility allocate secretion (disorder of the testicles), obstructive (mechanical barriers to entry of sperm), immunological (the body produces antibodies to spermatozoa) forms of infertility.
It should be noted that the risk of infertility increases significantly in adulthood, especially women. This decline in fertility is understandable – in the 30 years the women Matures almost three times fewer follicles than 20. In addition, the quality of matured oocytes with age it becomes much worse. In addition to long-term absence of pregnancy as such, poor egg quality can lead to Savanoriu (miscarriage) or birth of a child with genetic disorders.
For men the age of the decrease in the ability to conceive a child comes much later – about 55 years. But, when the abuse of alcohol, Smoking, junk food and a sedentary lifestyle, pathological changes in the reproductive system of men can occur at a young age.
Diagnosis of infertility
If conception does not occur during the year, both spouses must pass the examination.
When identifying male infertility plays a major role semen. Experts estimate the number, body structure and mobility of male germ cells. If the quantity or quality of cells is insufficient, are assigned additional studies to identify the reasons that can adversely affect spermatogenesis in men.
Also necessarily conducted tests on biological and immunological compatibility of the couple. In some cases it makes sense to study the karyotype of both spouses, to eliminate the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities in the unborn child.
Methods of treatment by assisted reproductive technologies
The main procedure for more than three decades is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The IVF procedure is well-tested by doctors all over the world. It consists of several stages: stimulation of ovulation in women, the control of maturation of the follicles and the subsequent collection of eggs and sperm, fertilization in vitro, growth monitoring of embryo transfer best quality embryos to the uterus in an amount not more than 3-H.
The stages of the treatment standard, but the characteristics of the organism and the indications for IVF requires an individual approach, as in the appointment of a special medications, and establishing deadlines for each stage of treatment.
These methods offer almost all of the clinic of reproductive medicine, their efficacy in the treatment of proven tens and hundreds of thousands of born children. Yet, the effectiveness of using only one IVF is not more than 40%. Therefore, the main task of reproduction around the world is increasing the number of successful cycles of artificial insemination. So, recently, in the clinics of reproductive medicine is practiced infusion of a five-day embryos (blastocysts) rather than the “young”, a three-day. The optimal blastocyst for transfer, as this term is easier to determine the prospects of such embryos for further development in the mother’s body.
To improve the statistics of successful insemination procedures help and other methods of assisted reproductive technology, the list of which can be different in different clinics of reproductive medicine.
Common method for the treatment of infertility is ICSI (ICSI), which means direct injection of sperm into the egg. Usually ICSI shown for male infertility secretory type, and often combined with IVF. However, ICSI, implying an increase in the 200-400 can assess the condition of the sperm only superficially, in the most severe abnormalities of sperm that is not enough. So in 1999, scientists have proposed a more innovative method IMSI (IMSI). It involves an increase in 6600 times and allows to estimate the smallest deviations in the structure of male germ cells.
To assess the risk of genetic abnormalities in the embryo used methods such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Both methods involve the study of the embryo for the presence of pathological changes in the genome of the embryo before transfer to the uterus of the woman. These methods not only increase the efficiency of in vitro fertilization and shown in genetic disorders in the genotype pair, but also reduce the risk of self-abortions and the birth of children with genetic disorders.