Ultrasound of the neck – the General notion of ultrasound in the diagnosis. In the framework of such terms as “ultrasound of the neck, can be performed the following studies:
– thyroid ultrasound;
ultrasonography of neck lymph nodes;
– an ultrasound of the vocal folds (in the North-Western centre of endocrinology at performance expert ultrasound thyroid surgeons, endocrinologists performed ultrasound of the lymph nodes and ultrasound of the vocal folds free);
– an ultrasound of the salivary glands;
duplex or triplex ultrasound of the neck vessels (often performed immediately ultrasound of the head and neck).
All these ultrasound examination are, in General, completely mixed and completely independent studies. To unite them under a common name ultrasound of the neck in the medical world is not accepted, but patients often in conversation or search services over the Internet do – and there is nothing to worry.
Vascular ultrasound of the neck
The most common and most popular type of ultrasound of the neck is an ultrasound of the neck vessels (also called duplex receptacles duplex scanning of vessels, Doppler ultrasound). The purpose of this study was to assess the patency of the vessels, the degree of tortuosity, velocity of blood flow at different levels of vessels, detection of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombi that threaten the development of stroke.
Ultrasound of vessels of head and neck
Very often patients with disorders of blood flow in the brain (eg, dizziness, periodic loss of consciousness, instability of gait, and after strokes or transient ischemic attacks) is a complete ultrasound examination of the head and neck vessels. If the neck all the vessels are in sight of the ultrasound machine, then head all the vessels are divided into extracranial (i.e. passing outwardly of the bone structures of the skull) and intracranial (passing in the cranial cavity). Of course, examination of the intracranial vessels with ultrasound of head and neck vessels is difficult – due to their deep location and due to the small size of the bone “Windows” through which you can consider these vessels.
Ultrasound of the neck – examination of the thyroid gland
The second most frequent type ultrasound of the neck is the thyroid gland. When performing an ultrasound of the neck, the thyroid gland is measured from the point of view of its location, shape, structure, clarity of the contours, size and share of the total volume of the gland, the uniformity of the internal structure, the presence or absence of nodes.
Ultrasound of the neck – examination of lymph nodes
Ultrasound of the neck examination of the cervical lymph nodes of different groups is an obligatory stage of the study. Competent expert ultrasound diagnosis with an ultrasound of the neck always examines the lymph nodes of multiple groups.
Major groups of lymph nodes in the neck are:
– prehormone lymph nodes (located anterior to the larynx);
– pretracheal lymph nodes (located anterior to the trachea);
– paratracheal lymph nodes (located on either side of the trachea);
– jugular lymph nodes (located behind the sternocleidomastoid muscle) at three levels: verhneyarkeevo, srednekamennogo and enigneering;
enlarged lymph nodes lateral triangle of the neck;
– submandibular lymph nodes.
According to the classification adopted in the environment of the surgeons involved in the conduct of operations on his neck, the lymph nodes are divided into six levels (denoted by Roman numerals from I to VI).
Preparation for ultrasound of the neck
Ultrasound of the neck requires no special training. No need to starve, nor use any diet for training. This parameter ultrasound of the neck is one of the most convenient types of studies can be performed at any convenient time.
Decoding the results of the ultrasound examination of the neck
– common carotid artery. The length of her right – from 7 to 12 cm, slightly more left – 10-15 cm It should be divided into the internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA). There are versions of the regulations, when a side of the common carotid artery is absent, and the NSA and the ICA start directly from the aorta. The systolic-diastolic left against the normal – 25-35%.
– ICA. May be straight, tortuous and its absence with some hand – variants of the norm.
– vertebral artery: blood flow in it has a continuous pulsation.
the ratio of flow velocity in the common carotid/internal carotid artery should be 1,8±0,4.The higher the ratio, the more severe the degree of vasospasm.
– thyroid gland has these characteristics: homogeneous echostructure, the proportion is about the same, a contour equal, precise. In cross-section of iron – about 15-20 mm, 20-25 mm width, in length – about 30-50 mm.
– blood clots, calcification and platelets should not be.
– assessed the degree of patency of the vessel: the higher spell the degree of stenosis, the more you will suffer, those bodies from this supply blood to the vessel.
– ultrasound of the neck in cancer of the larynx informative in terms of the early detection of metastases in cervical lymph nodes. Before the node starts the lesions even very experienced specialist, the device will be able to register an increase, its contour irregularity, violation of the structure. Also under ultrasound control, you may perform a biopsy of the lymph node fine needle. If the suspicion of metastases confirmed, surgery and other treatments will be conducted on time.