Children's health

Vomiting in Children


Vomiting in Children

Vomiting is called involuntary outpouring of the stomach contents outward through the mouth. The diaphragm drops down, the glottis is closed. In the stomach it is the upper section abruptly relaxes, while at the bottom comes a spasm. The muscles of the diaphragm and abdomen are sharply reduced, causing the release of undigested foods to the end up the esophagus. While there are unpleasant feelings, pain in the throat due to scratched trachea, the taste of bile or acid in the mouth, nasty smell.

This condition can be triggered by a variety of reasons. So vomiting in a child can occur at any age, and parents should be prepared for this.

Causes

In an infant the main reason for the vomiting (not to be confused with regurgitation) — the formation of the digestion. Those who are older, this unpleasant reflex can be caused by many different diseases and external factors. It is a defensive reaction to the stimulus, trying to get rid of toxic substances:

  • The use in food of substandard products.
  • Overeating, force feeding baby, drinking large amounts of very fatty foods — so due to vomiting after eating.
  • Poisoning medications.
  • Disgust.

Illness

Problems with the gastrointestinal tract

  • Dysentery, salmonellosis.
  • Syndrome of acute abdomen.
  • in newborns, stenosis, diverticulum, achalasia, pilorospazme, hernia, pyloric stenosis.
  • If there is a temperature of 38°C and vomiting, it could be a stomach flu.
  • Gastritis.
  • Goiter.

Cranial pathology

  • has a headache.
  • feeling dizzy.
  • Concussion.
  • Meningitis.
  • Syndrome of Bruns.
  • trauma to the head.
  • Syndrome of the posterior fossa.

Other health problems

High temperature is not only a concomitant symptom of vomiting, but most often it causes. Uusually iIf the child vomits in the morning, reasons to look at serious diseases: infections, meningitis, brain tumor, acute appendicitis.

  • Allergy.
  • In infants causes can be a neurological pathology, a foreign body in the stomach, stenosis of the pylorus.
  • Coughing.
  • Vomiting due to rotavirus is one of the main features.
  • Appendix.
  • Metabolic disorders.
  • Bestellung hepatitis.
  • Renal failure.
  • Is often observed vomiting in SARS.
  • Diabetes.
  • Congestive heart failure.
  • Epistaxis.
  • Epilepsy.
  • Purulent otitis.

External factors

  • Motion sickness in transport.
  • Fears, anxiety, stress. The characteristic symptom is vomiting green.
  • A sunstroke.
  • If there is vomiting in the night, aggravating factors often become not only stomach problems, poisoning, but also a strong fear (nightmare), stuffy air and low humidity in the room.
  • If the child after vomiting fever, this can be as rotavirus infection, and heat stroke (overheating).

Sometimes vomiting when teething, but no direct physiological connection between them. Rather, the first — a consequence of the second. The reason in this case can be high temperature, forced feeding, swallowing large quantity of air when crying and mourning.

The causes of child vomiting a lot. Only the most attentive parents will be able to tell her the reason, but it is better suited to medical diagnostics. Moreover, in medical practice there are different types of this protective mechanism.

Terminology: medical sources, you find the following concepts are identical vomiting: altamese, anabolia, Lannemezan, gastralia, hematemesis, heremes, hypermedia, James.

Also pay special attention to the children’s cosmetics, namely, shampoos and tools for swimming. Read carefully the composition.

Highly recommend to get rid of cosmetic products which contain this chemical, especially when it comes to children and infants, Scientists and experts have repeatedly said that these substances affect the body. Of the many cosmetic companies are very difficult to find a totally safe means.

Types

There are several classifications of baby vomit. Depending on comorbidities and the nature of vomit, the child can recognize the following types.

  • Cyclic ketenimine.
  • Gepatogenna.
  • Kidney.
  • Diabetic.
  • Cardiac.
  • Abdominal.
  • Psychogenic.
  • Bloody.
  • Cerebral.

In children is often diagnosed acetonemia vomiting — the so-called pathological condition by increasing the concentration in the blood plasma ketone bodies. Manifested by stereotypic recurrent episodes that alternate with periods of satisfactory physical condition. Distinguish primary (idiopathic) is a consequence of errors in diet (hungry pause, plenty of fat) and a secondary developing on the background of infectious, somatic, endocrine disease, CNS lesions.

Correctly identify the species and to make an accurate diagnosis only qualified doctor. Although his consultations, parents have to observe what are the concomitant symptoms is characterized by the child’s condition.

Educational program for parents. Children’s acetonemia vomiting in medicine may be referred to as diabetic ketoacidosis.

Vomiting and Diarrhea in Kids

Symptoms

Vomiting without symptoms is observed rarely. Most often it is accompanied by some deviations in the condition of the child. They will help to recognize the underlying disease which was the cause of this trouble. Therefore, the primary task of parents to the arrival of the doctor is to observe what other typical manifestations are accompanied by vomiting.

Vomiting without fever

Severe vomiting in a child without fever is not a separate disease, requiring specifically aimed against it therapy. This is a symptom of one of the pathologies afflicting small body. These include:

  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: vomiting with diarrhea and abdominal pain;
  • pathology of metabolic processes;
  • overall toxicity: reactions to drugs or food poisoning — in such cases the child is usually observed to vomit after meals or use of a particular drug;
  • serious problems with the nervous system can manifest itself in behavioral disorders: the child becomes capricious, uncontrollable, not eating and sleeping.

If there is frequent vomiting without fever in the morning, in most cases, problems with the Central nervous system, if evenings and night — with my stomach.

Vomiting and temperature

Far more dangerous are the vomiting and the temperature in the single tandem. This indicates the presence of a small body inflammatory reaction, infection. They need to be addressed as soon as possible, till it came to complications, which in such cases are not uncommon. Here you need to call the doctor and obey all his orders. Without treatment (sometimes even fixed) is not enough.

If vomiting in a child with fever, it is important to track the time, how they relate over time. If fever began the first, it could provoke nausea with all the ensuing consequences. If at the same time is an intestinal infection. If it’s late — it can be as innocuous the flu and dangerous meningitis.

Other symptoms

  • The child has a stomach ache and vomiting is food poisoning or infection.
  • Dangerous vomiting bile, which can be a symptom of cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, viral hepatitis, intestinal infections.
  • Strong (especially in the morning) headache and vomiting is a frequent symptom of concussion.
  • If it is vomiting blood you need to exclude injuries of the esophagus, stomach, ulcers.
  • In infants vomiting with mucus often is not a symptom of disease, whereas older children may be due to food poisoning.
  • colds or prolonged starvation possible vomiting water.
  • One of the most dangerous — vomiting foam, which requires immediate hospitalization of the child, as may be the consequence of acute intestinal infections, diabetes, meningitis, hepatitis, myocardial infarction, cancer.
  • In infants may be vomiting a fountain, the reason may lie in the simple overfeeding to complex pathologies in development.

Color vomiting

  • Yellow: food poisoning, appendicitis, intestinal infection.
  • Red: gastric bleeding, damage to the esophagus or mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Green: a large number of greens in the diet, or stress.
  • Black: abuse of the activated charcoal chemotherapy.

Sometimes there is vomiting without symptoms: if she is single, do not worry. This is the reaction of a small stomach on a product or an external factor. But if it is repeated several times a day, despite the lack of accompanying signs, you need to see a doctor. And before his arrival to give the patient first aid, not to bring the case to the complications.

Note. do Not rejoice, if vomiting the child is asymptomatic is to see a doctor is still needed, to prevent complications.

First aid

Reasons for concern and reasons to call the doctor (Ambulance):

  • Fever.
  • Unbearable abdominal pain, profuse diarrhea.
  • Lethargy, loss of consciousness, cold sweat, pallor.
  • Child age up to 1 year.
  • Repeated and persistent vomiting.

Parents need to know what is the first aid for vomiting in a child before he or she sees a doctor. In 90% of cases it helps to avoid unpleasant consequences, but also greatly facilitates the patient’s condition.

  • Lay in bed with my head turned sideways. To enclose under a cheek and chin towel for repeated vomiting.
  • Infants positioning hands horizontally on its side.
  • Do not give anything to eat.
  • Antipyretics (paracetamol) be given only after the temperature rises to 38°C.
  • During an attack is to sit down by tilting the torso slightly forward. So vomit will not get into the lungs.
  • After each attack, rinse your mouth with clean, cool water, to wash, to change.
  • Not to scare the child with panic: not to yell, not to lament, not to discuss his illness with others, not to cry. To act decisively, quietly, quickly. To support the patient with strokes and words.
  • Parents often asked what to give a child with vomiting until the arrival of the doctor. After an attack will allow him to make 2-3 SIPS of water.
  • It can be replaced with glucose-salt solutions, which can be purchased at the pharmacy. In such cases, well help Regidron, Tsitraglyukosolan, Gastrolit, Oralit etc. to Breed strictly according to the recipe. To use 1-2 teaspoons every 10 minutes. Infants — 2-3 drops.
  • As for specific funds, parents who do not know how to stop vomiting in a child can be advised Smekta.
  • After you have diarrhea to wash away the child, to change panties.
  • To father things for hospital (just in case).
  • Leave the vomit and stools for examination by the doctor.

But what to do if your child has vomiting without diarrhea and temperature without any impurities and other dangerous symptoms? To be alert to do all the same instructions and carefully observe its condition. At the first sign of deterioration or recurrent seizures without medical professional help, there is still not enough.

And please note: it is undesirable to transport by small patient, as in the car will rock even more and he may become worse. In the hospital you will have to wait a number of diagnostic tests.

Not! Vomiting is strictly forbidden solutions of potassium permanganate and alcohol.

Diagnostics

Usually the diagnosis is straightforward because the cause is easily detected even before arrival of doctors accompanying symptoms. If it remains unclear, conducted a more thorough investigation.

Analysis information

The doctor interrogates the parents and ascertain the following points:

  • when there was vomiting;
  • the frequency of the attacks;
  • comes after them relief;
  • is there any connection with food intake;
  • the volume of vomit and stool;
  • the presence of impurities;
  • character;
  • ill do something to the child in the last 2 weeks;
  • what infections suffered;
  • are there any abdominal surgery, and when carried out;
  • I suspect if the parents themselves are food poisoning;
  • changes in weight for the last 2 weeks.

Inspection

The doctor during the examination of the child patient defines:

  • temperature;
  • signs of infection (rash, cramps);
  • symptoms;
  • general condition: pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, reflexes;
  • the degree of dehydration (skin elasticity, weight change);
  • the presence of symptoms indicating diseases of the digestive system: changes in the chair, tense the abdominal wall, liver enlargement, abdominal distension;
  • visual study of vomit and fecal mass on the presence of impurities.

Laboratory methods

Here you will need to pass basic tests:

  • a blood test (most common);
  • urine test.

Methods

  • ultrasound of the peritoneum determines the size of the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, allows you to identify problems with the digestive tract;
  • ultrasound of the brain;
  • fibrogastroduodenoscopy — examination with the endoscope of the stomach to diagnose diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • X-rays of the organs of the abdomen with contrast when used with a special substance against which the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract are clearly visible.

Depending on which disease is suspected, the doctors, the child may be send for further consultations by various specialists (gastroenterologist, cardiologist, neurologist, urologist, endocrinologist, etc.). They will confirm or refute the presumptive diagnosis. After that it will be prescribed treatment.

Useful information for parents. If the hospital you appointed neurosonography, don’t be frightened of the terrible medical term. This ultrasound of the brain.

Vomiting – Natural Home Remedies for Vomiting

Treatment vomiting

Vomiting in children, doctors prescribe mainly in two directions. First, drugs temporary action to stop bad reflex and relieve associated symptoms. Second, treatment of the underlying disease which was the cause of this condition.

Medical treatment

  • Glucose-salt solutions.
  • Allowed children drugs from vomiting: Smectite (absorbent, stop toxicity, can be given to children from birth), Reglan (blocks the gag reflex at the level of brain signals permitted 2 years), Enterofuril (an antimicrobial agent, prescribed for infectious vomiting since 1 month), Domperidone (5 years), Motilium, no-spasm, Primadophilus.
  • Homeopathy: bryony Aethusa, Nux vomica, Antimonium crudum.
  • To restore normal functioning of the stomach: Hylak Forte, Bifidumbacterin, Linex, Lactofiltrum, Mezim, pankreatin, CEPOL, Bifiform, Bifikol, Enteral, Colibacterin, Beylin, Lactobacterin, bacteriophage and probiotics.
  • Nullify intoxication sorbents: Polifepan, POLYSORB, Activated carbon, Neosmectin, Enterosgel.
  • Diarrhea assigned: calcium Carbonate, Bismuth, Diary, Tanalin, Imodium.
  • With detection of intestinal infections antibiotics can not be avoided: Ercefuryl, Furazolidone, Nevigramon, Nergal, Gentamicin, Rifampicin, Tienam, Kanamycin, Meronem, Ciprofloxacin, Kanamicina sulfate, Ceftazidime.
  • Intramuscular or intravenous administration of antispasmodics (solution Shpy), m-holinoblokatorov (Atropine solution), metoclopramide (Raglan, Tserukal).
  • If all above mentioned therapy is ineffective against vomiting in children can be used neuroleptics (Etaperazin).
  • In cases of poisoning are the detoxification and gastric lavage.
  • With detection of tumors, intestinal obstruction, stenosis of the pylorus, the decision on surgical intervention.

If the child is under a year, it is better to use drugs in the form of suspension, syrup or candles. After a year, you can apply the pill from vomiting for children, but again only with the permission of the doctor.

Treatment home remedies

Traditional medicine is also not spared this problem. Often, however, parents are too misused these funds. It is best to consult a doctor that can give a child vomit at home. Because some recipes can only worsen the condition if you have any serious health problems. Minimum damage and maximum effect have the following folk remedies.

  • Fennel seeds

Prepare the broth: 1 h. spoon, pour a glass (200 ml), water (already hot), simmer on medium heat for 5 minutes. Cool. Give 20-50 ml every 2 hours.

  • Tincture of lemon balm

20 grams of lemon balm, pour a liter of boiling water. Leave for 5 hours. Drain. Water often, but little by little.

  • A Decoction of ginger

Grind ginger, grated, 2 tbsp. spoon, pour a glass of boiling water. Soar on low heat for a quarter of an hour. Drain. Give every 2 hours for 50 ml.

  • Mint infusion

20 grams mint (better to take pepper) pour a glass of boiling water. Leave for half an hour under a lid. Take 20 ml every 3 hours.

  • The Milk-yolk mixture

Whisk the warm milk with the yolk. To give often, 2 tablespoons at a time. Stops strong convulsive vomiting.

Tea

Mix 3 teaspoons of lemon balm, 4 — chamomile flowers, 3 — peppermint. Brew a Cup of boiling water. Leave for an hour, drain. Give 50 ml every 3 hours.

  • A Decoction of Valerian root

1 h. a spoonful of chopped Valerian root pour a glass of water. Boil on low heat for a quarter of an hour. Drain, cool, give 20 ml to 5 times a day.

In addition to these effective folk recipes to stop vomiting in a child in the home will allow you to:

  • cool-brewed green tea;
  • whites of eggs;
  • the roots of elecampane;
  • branches of blackberries;
  • tarragon;
  • tansy;
  • a mixture of honey and nettle seed;
  • a mixture of honey and ivy leaf.

Antiemetic, is permitted for children is very effective, but any delay could be dangerous. This protective process is very exhausting the body, provokes a depletion of vitality and dehydration. At stake — the health of the child, so not worth the risk self-medicate. Another important aspect of therapy is the diet for vomiting, which helps to improve the health of patients and to normalize the digestion.

Therapeutic diets

Parents should be familiar with the basic principles of diet, to know what to feed the child after vomiting and during it.

  • To give food is recommended only after 5 hours after the attack.
  • First meals after this break needs to be liquid or crushed.
  • Meals in small amounts frequently, about every 3 hours.
  • Products should be vitamins and light.
  • You do not need to force the child is violently — it could trigger a repeat attack.
  • To make a diet on their own — only with the permission of the pediatrician.
  • Dietary fats in the first three days after the attacks to minimize. They impede the functioning of the stomach.
  • To Reduce the content of carbohydrates in food. They contribute to the fermentation processes in the intestine.
  • Main dish for the baby — breast milk. Over the year — dairy buckwheat and rice cereal, but the milk must be pasteurized.
  • It is best to dilute it with water in equal proportions.

Allowed-products:

  • sweet, strong tea;
  • white breadcrumbs;
  • cold soufflé of veal;
  • buckwheat, rice porridge;
  • boiled chicken breast;
  • vegetable broth
  • animal crackers;
  • milk.

Prohibited products:

  • carbonated water;
  • rice;
  • chips;
  • croutons;
  • fried, sour, salty products;
  • whole cow’s milk, porridge with him;
  • rye bread, crackers from it;
  • legumes;
  • herbs;
  • raw fruits;
  • grapes, the juice out of it;
  • muffin;
  • fish;
  • fatty meats;
  • mushrooms;
  • of beef, fish, mushroom broth.

So to treat vomiting in a child’s needs comprehensively. Despite the prejudice against modern medicine, parents should not neglect medical drugs and less people use means without the permission of doctors.

The exact diet will give great results and will contribute to the speedy recovery of the little patient. If you wait until it’s over of course, it could be disastrous — complications, which in the future will affect the fate of the child.

Complications

If you do not stop the vomiting in a child, is fraught with serious complications. The most dangerous consequences for his health in this situation may be:

  • dehydration, which if not avoided may lead to death;
  • abundant and frequent vomiting can lead to injuries, wounds, mucosal lacerations of the esophagus, pharynx, stomach;
  • aspiration pneumonia when getting vomit in the respiratory system;
  • tooth decay because the stomach acid getting into the mouth, destroying tooth enamel.

If it is a single reflex that is not often repeated, do not panic. But if there is abundant, constant vomiting (several times a day or week), it is a reason to go to the doctor. Considering the danger of the gag reflex for small, need to be engaged in its prevention that will reduce the risk of complications.

And more. To death can lead not only after an emetic dehydrated little body. There were cases when the child choked on her own vomit. This happens if he is home alone and can’t help himself.

Prevention

To preventative measures to prevent frequent and copious vomiting are:

  • prevention and treatment of any disease, elimination of complications and relapses;
  • high-quality food processing products in accordance with hygiene requirements;
  • prevention of poisoning of medicinal, household, industrial, chemical agents;
  • timely isolation of patients during epidemics of infectious diseases;
  • immunization;
  • competent child care to prevent aspiration pneumonia;
  • hygiene, especially washing hands before meals;
  • creation of favorable psychological atmosphere;
  • do not give your baby medications without a prescription.

All parents in practice at least once, but faced with a child’s vomit. If it is not accompanied by fever and other dangerous concomitant symptoms, is a single character and it is known that it provoked a certain product, perhaps danger can be avoided. But in all other cases, access to a doctor and complex therapy is required. Otherwise, home self-treatment may turn out to be too dangerous.

Reviewed by the QSota Medical Advisory Board