Whooping cough – this is a dangerous infectious disease of the respiratory tract that is caused by bacteria pertussis. Its most characteristic symptom is paroxysmal spasmodic cough. Most frequent in children of preschool age. Especially dangerous this infection before the age of 2 years.
Causes of disease pertussis in children
Source of infection is the only person (patients typical and atypical forms of pertussis, as well as a healthy bacillicarriers). Especially dangerous patients in the initial stage is from 1 to 25 day of the disease. The average incubation period is 7-14 days (maximum 3 weeks).
Symptoms of whooping cough
The disease lasts about 6 weeks and is divided into 3 stages: prodromal (catarrhal), and paroxysmal stage of recovery.
Prodromal period is usually 1-2 weeks, there is a runny nose, sneezing, occasional mild fever and cough, which is not reduced by antitussives. To 3 week cough increases becomes paroxysmal form, especially at night, and the disease becomes paroxysmal period. With a 3 to 4 week there is the typical spasmodic cough with secretion of viscid mucous expectoration. During an attack of coughing the patient’s face is red, the tongue protrudes, the possible trauma of tongue-tie, sometimes there is bleeding under the mucous membrane of conjunctiva eyes.
It should be remembered that in infants is not typical of coughing. Instead, they after a few coughing bouts may occur short stop breathing, which can be life-threatening.
At the stage of recovery of the paroxysms of coughing become less frequent and less severe, the patient feels better. Paroxysmal cough may reappear within a few months; usually it provokes SARS.
Complications of pertussis
The most frequent complication is pneumonia, caused by pertussis wand, or secondary bacterial infection.Especially hard, with considerable mortality, whooping cough in children during the first months of life.
Self treatment for whooping cough
The sick child (especially younger) are encouraged to ensure maximum comfort, since the effects of external stimuli may bring on a paroxysm of coughing. For older children with mild forms of the disease bed rest is not required. Avoid impacts, provoking cough mustard, banks). It is recommended that the patient stay in the fresh air and the frequent airing of premises.
Clinical treatment of pertussis
Diagnosis of pertussis is based on clinical and epidemiological data and the results of laboratory tests (isolation of the pathogen or its antigens in crops of mucus from the throat, the determination of antibodies to the antigen of pertussis toxin in serum by ELISA, the reaction of the latex-microagglutination in samples of saliva of the patient). Hospitalization of the patient is only required in severe cases. The mainstay of treatment antibiotics are the macrolides.
Prevention of pertussis
The only reliable means of specific prophylaxis of pertussis is vaccination. Pertussis whole cell vaccine first developed and licensed in the USA in 1914. With her help managed to drastically reduce the incidence and severity of whooping cough.
According to the national immunization schedule vaccination against pertussis is conducted three times – in 3, 4.5 and 6 months, with a single revaccination at the age of 18 months. In Europe and the USA, along with United States DTP vaccine (Adsorbed pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine), registered foreign counterparts – Tetrack and Infanrix.