Yersiniosis — an infectious disease of humans and animals. Typical fever, intoxication, lesions of the gastro-intestinal tract, joints, skin. The tendency to undulating course with exacerbations and relapses. The pathogen belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, genus Yersinia. Role different animals as a source of infection is not equivalent. Reservoir of the pathogen in nature are small rodents that live in the wild, and synanthropic. A more important source of infection for humans are cows and small cattle, which acutely ill or isolated pathogen. The main route of transmission — nutritional, then is through food, mostly vegetables. Yersiniosis sick at any age, but most often in children 1-3 years. Mainly dominated by sporadic cases, there has been a fall-winter season.
Symptoms and Course of Yersiniosis
Extremely diverse. Identified in a particular sequence of signs of lesions of various organs and systems. Yersiniosis most often starts with acute gastroenteritis. Later the disease can occur either as an acute intestinal infection or generalized — ie spread throughout the body. All forms have common features: acute onset, fever, intoxication, pain in the stomach, upset his chair, rash, joint pain, liver enlargement, propensity to exacerbation and relapse. Taking into account the duration distinguish acute (up to 3 months), prolonged (3 to 6 months) and chronic (more than 6 months) for the disease.
Incubation period of yersiniosis 1-2 days up to 10 days. The most constant symptoms of intestinal lesions in the form of gastroenteritis, gastroenterocolitis, mezenterialnah of lymphadenitis, enterocolitis, terminal ileitis, acute appendicitis. Abdominal pain permanent or cramping nature, different location, nausea, vomiting, loose stools with mucus and pus, sometimes blood from 2 to 15 times a day. Symptoms of intoxication manifested in the following: high fever, in severe cases — toxemia, dehydration and decreased body temperature. At the beginning of the disease may appear dotted or small patchy rash on the trunk and limbs, liver disease, meningeal syndrome. In the later period — mono or polyarthritis, erythema nodosum, myocarditis, conjunctivitis, iritis. These manifestations are regarded as an allergic reaction. In the peripheral blood neutrophil observed leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The disease lasts from a week to several months.
Recognition of yersiniosis. Bacteriological stool examination, serological tests in paired sera.
Treatment of yersiniosis. In the absence of concomitant diseases, in cases of lung and erased the flow of yersiniosis, patients can be treated at home by an infectious disease physician. The basis of pathogenetic and causal treatment aimed at detoxification, restoration of water-electrolyte losses normal composition of blood, suppression of the pathogen. Medication tools — chloramphenicol at the rate of 2,0 g / day for 12 days, from other drugs — tetracycline, gentamicin, randomized, doxycycline and others in normal daily dosages.
Prevention of yersiniosis. Compliance with sanitary regulations in catering, technology, cooking and shelf life of food products (vegetables, fruits, etc.). Timely detection of patients and carriers of yersiniosis, disinfection of premises.